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Kukna Language
Kukna is a minority language spoken by the Saraswat Konkani people
Konkani people
of Karnataka
Karnataka
and in some parts of Kerala.[note 1][4]Contents1 Names 2 Geographic distribution 3 History 4 The people4.1 North Canara (Uttara Kannada
Kannada
district, Karnataka) 4.2 South Canara ( Udupi
Udupi
and Mangalore districts, Karnataka) 4.3 Travancore ( Cochin
Cochin
and Ernakulam district, Kerala)5 Description5.1 Language structure6 Literature6.1 Early literature 6.2 Medieval Literature 6.3 Contemporary Literature7 Culture, media and arts 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External linksNames[edit] The Karnataka
Karnataka
Saraswat dialects are referred to as Canara Konkani. The Kerala
Kerala
dialects are referred to as Travancore Konkani or Kerala Konkani
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Bhandaris
The Bhandari community is a caste that inhabits the western coast of India. They form the largest caste group in the state of Goa, reportedly being over 30% of that state's Hindu population, and play a major role in deciding the future of any political party there.[1]Contents1 Classification 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingClassification[edit] Bhandaris are included in the list of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in Goa. This provides them with certain rights under India's scheme of affirmative action, such as reservation of positions in government employment and admission to professional colleges.[2] They are also classified as OBCs in Maharashtra.[3] See also[edit]People of the Konkan Division Bhandari MilitiaReferences[edit]^ "Treasurers of yore, now key to political fortune". The Times Of India. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  ^ " Goa
Goa
govt increases quota for OBCs in jobs to 27%"
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Bijapur Sultanate
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim[4] dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur
Bijapur
district, Karnataka
Karnataka
in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India
India
from 1489 to 1686.[6] Bijapur had been a province of the Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
(1347–1518), before its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518. The Bijapur
Bijapur
Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb.[7] The founder of the dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah
Shah
(1490–1510), was appointed Bahmani
Bahmani
governor of the province, before creating a de facto independent Bijapur
Bijapur
state
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Persecution Of Hindus
Hindus
Hindus
have experienced religious persecution in the form of forceful conversions, documented massacres, demolition and desecrations of temples, as well as the destruction of universities and schools
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Christianization Of Goa
The indigenous population of the erstwhile Portuguese colony of Goa underwent a large-scale conversion from Hinduism
Hinduism
to Christianity
Christianity
after its conquest and occupation by the Portuguese Empire, led by admiral Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
in 1510. After conversion to Roman Catholicism, they were granted Portuguese citizenship.[1] Almost all the present-day Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
are descendants of these local converts to the religion
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Jesuit
The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(SJ – from Latin: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Franciscan
The Franciscans
Franciscans
are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis. These orders adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.[2] Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome
Rome
to seek approval from Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope
Pope
disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching
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Goa Inquisition
The Goa
Goa
Inquisition
Inquisition
was a colonial era Portuguese institution established by the Roman Catholic Holy Office between the 16th- and 19th-century to stop and punish heresy against Christianity in South Asia.[1] The institution persecuted Hindus
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St. Francis Xavier
Saint
Saint
Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Sanctus Franciscus Xaverius, 7 April 1506 – 3 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese
Navarro-Aragonese
or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre
Navarre
(present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a companion of Saint
Saint
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
and one of the first seven Jesuits
Jesuits
who took vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris
Paris
in 1534.[1] He led an extensive mission into Asia, mainly in the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
of the time and was influential in evangelization work, most notably in India
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Gangolli
Gangolli
Gangolli
(also Ganguli) is a village in Kundapur Taluk
Kundapur Taluk
of Udupi district in Karnataka
Karnataka
state. It is situated at the estuary of the Panchagangavalli River. It is located on a peninsula on the west coast of Karnataka. It is bordered by the river to the east and by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west. The village name was originally spelled as "Ganguli", but then gradually since it is now more commonly spelt as "Gangolli". The postal seal however still uses the old spelling. History[edit] Situated at the mouth of an estuary where 5 rivers(Souparnika River, Varahi River, Kedaka River, Chakra River, and Kubja River) meet, Gangolli
Gangolli
hence was earlier called "Panchagangavali"
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Kali River (Karnataka)
The Kali River
River
or Kalinadi is a river flowing through Karwar, Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka
Karnataka
state in India.[3] The river rises near Diggi, a small village in Uttar Kannada district. The river is the lifeline to some 4 lakh people in the Uttara Kannada
Uttara Kannada
district and supports the livelihoods of tens of thousands of people including fishermen on the coast of Karwar. There are many dams built across this river for the generation of electricity. One of the important dams build across Kali river is the Supa Dam
Supa Dam
at Ganeshgudi
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Karwar
Karwar
Karwar
is a city in Karnataka
Karnataka
being the head quarter of Uttara Kannada district in the Southern western coast of India. It is situated between Sahyadri
Sahyadri
ever green forest in east, blue Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west, towards south ends with harbour and North the beautiful Kali river. It is one of the green city of India
India
with eco tourism. Hills has created a natural harbour with protection against wind and sea tides naturally. Being a port town, Karwar
Karwar
is a centre for fish business, agriculture, known for manufacturing of golden ornaments in Karwarian style and under developed tourism. It has a population of about 1.5 Lakh. Karwar
Karwar
was part of the Bombay
Bombay
Presidency until 1956
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Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmin
HinduismDivisions based on Sampradaya:SmarthasDivisions based on Veda:RigvediChitrapur Saraswats are a small Konkani-speaking community of Hindu Brahmins in India
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Bahamani
The Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
(also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India
India
and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.[3] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India.[4] The empire was established by Turkic general Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah after revolting against the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.[5] Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Hasanabad (Gulbarga) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad (Bidar). The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
to the south
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Daivajna
Goa, Coastal and west Maharashtra, Coastal and central Karnataka Populations in Kerala
Kerala
Konkani, as well as Marathi are spoken as the native tongues and are used for written communication. Tulu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, and Hindi
Hindi
may be sometimes spoken outside home. English is commonly used for education and formal communication.ReligionHinduism Daivadnya
Daivadnya
Brahmin
Brahmin
(Devanagari:दैवज्ञ ब्राह्मण) is an ethno-religious community and a Hindu Brahmin
Brahmin
caste of the west coast of India, predominantly residing in the states of Goa, coastal Karnataka, and coastal Maharashtra. They are commonly known as Shet in the coastal region
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