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Kronid Lyubarsky
Kronid Arkadyevich Lyubarsky (Russian: Крони́д Арка́дьевич Люба́рский; 4 April 1934, Pskov, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
– 23 May 1996, Bali, Indonesia) was a Russian journalist, dissident, human rights activist and political prisoner.Contents1 Early career 2 Dissident activity 3 Emigration 4 Post-Soviet Russia4.1 Death and legacy5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External linksEarly career[edit] Born in the city of Pskov, USSR, on April 4, 1934, Lyubarsky graduated from the Moscow State University
Moscow State University
in 1956 and worked as an astrophysicist at the All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of the USSR Academy of Sciences. His academic work included studies on meteors and space biology. He was also working in the Soviet program of interplanetary exploration of Mars
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Index On Censorship
Index on Censorship
Censorship
is a campaigning publishing organisation for freedom of expression, which produces a quarterly magazine of the same name from London. The present Chief Executive of Index on Censorship, since May 2014, is Jodie Ginsberg.[1] It is directed by the non-profit-making Writers and Scholars International, Ltd. (WSI) in association with the UK-registered charity Index on Censorship
Censorship
(founded as the Writers and Scholars Educational Trust), which are both chaired by the British writer and author David Aaronovitch. WSI was created[2] by poet Stephen Spender, Oxford philosopher Stuart Hampshire, the then editor of The Observer David Astor, writer and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
expert Edward Crankshaw
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Irwin Cotler
Irwin Cotler, PC, OC (born May 8, 1940) was the Member of Parliament for Mount Royal from 1999 to 2015. He served as the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada from 2003 until the Liberal government of Paul Martin lost power following the 2006 federal election. He was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a by-election in November 1999, winning 92% of votes cast.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Human rights activity 3 National security and the law 4 Politics 5 Anti-discrimination work 6 Involvement with Nelson Mandela 7 Family 8 References 9 External linksEarly life[edit] The son of a lawyer, Cotler was born in Montreal, Quebec. Cotler received his B.A. (1961) and law degree from McGill University and was an editor of the McGill Law Journal.[2] He then graduated from Yale Law School with an LL.M
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Vladimir Central Prison
Vladimir Prison, popularly known as Vladimir Central (Russian: Владимирский централ), is a prison in Vladimir, Russia. It is the largest prison in Russia, with a capacity of 1220 detainees, and is operated by the Federal Penitentiary Service
Federal Penitentiary Service
as a maximum-security prison with most inmates serving a minimum of ten years to life sentences.[1][2]Contents1 History 2 Popular culture 3 Notable inmates 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Vladimir Prison
Prison
was established by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1783 by decree of Empress Catherine II, located about 160 kilometres (100 mi) northeast of Moscow. In 1906, it became known as Vladimir Central and contained political prisoners
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Tarusa
Tarusa (Russian: Тару́са), also known as Tarussa (Тару́сса), is a town and the administrative center of Tarussky District in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Oka River, 76 kilometers (47 mi) northeast of Kaluga, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 9,660 (2010 Census);[3] 9,893 (2002 Census);[6] 8,795 (1989 Census).[7]Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Administrative and municipal status 4 Culture 5 Economy 6 Cemeteries 7 References7.1 Notes 7.2 SourcesEtymology[edit] The name is from that of the Tarusa River, a tributary of the Oka; Tar- is a hydronym base characteristic of regions of ancient Baltic settlement.[8] According to a popular belief, the name derives from Tarusa's geohistorical position as a border town to the adjoining realm of Lithuania situated on the bank of the Oka
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Solzhenitsyn Aid Fund
The Solzhenitsyn Aid Fund (officially Russian Public Fund to Aid Political Prisoners and their Families, also Fund for the Aid of Political Prisoners, Public Aid Fund) was a charity foundation and support network set up by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
and Alexander Ginzburg that distributed funds and material support to political and religious prisoners across the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
throughout the 1970s and 1980s.Contents1 Founding 2 Activities 3 Post-Soviet Russia 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksFounding[edit] The fund was formed on the initiative of writer and political prisoner Alexander Ginzburg. Families of arrested dissidents often suffered repercussions such as the loss of jobs and opportunities to study. During his time in labor camps, Ginzburg managed to coordinate relatives and friends to help other inmates and their families
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Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights. The organization claims to have over 7 million members and supporters around the world. The stated objective of the organization is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated. "[3] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
was founded in London
London
in 1961, following the publication of the article "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The Observer on 28 May 1961,[4] by the lawyer Peter Benenson. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards
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Emigration
Emigration
Emigration
is the act of leaving one's resident country with the intent to settle elsewhere.[1] Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another.[2] Both are acts of migration across national boundaries. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere
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West Germany
50°44′02″N 7°05′59″E / 50.73389°N 7.09972°E / 50.73389; 7.09972Coordinates: 50°44′02″N 7°05′59″E / 50.73389°N 7.09972°E / 50.73389; 7.09972Languages GermanGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional republicPresident •  1949–1959 Theodor Heuss •  1959–1969 Heinrich Lübke •  1969–1974 Gustav Heinemann •  1974–1979 Walter Scheel •  1979–1984 Karl Carstens •  1984–1990 Richard von WeizsäckerbChancellor •  1949–1963 Konrad Adenauer •  1963–1966 Ludwig Erhard •  1966–1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger •  1969–1974 Willy Brandt •  1974–1982 Helmut Schmidt •  1982–1990 Helmut KohlcLegislature BundestagHistorical era Cold War •  Formation 23 May 19
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United States Congress
535 voting members100 senators 435 representatives6 non-voting membersSenate political groups     Republican (51)      Democratic (47)      Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats)House of Representatives political groups     Republican (238)      Democratic (193)      Vacant (4)ElectionsSenate last electionNovember 8, 2016House of Representatives last electionNovember 8, 2016Meeting place United States
United States
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Constitution Of The Russian Federation
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Russian: Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii; pronounced [kənsʲtʲɪˈtutsɨjə rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨɪ]) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936. The 1993 Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants. Sergei Alexeyev, Sergey Shakhray, and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as co-authors of the constitution. The text of the constitution was inspired by Mikhail Speransky's constitutional project and current French constitution.[1] A constitutional referendum was held in Russia on 12 December 1993
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Raoul Wallenberg
Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg (born 4 August 1912, death date unknown)[note 1][1] was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat and humanitarian. He is widely celebrated for saving tens of thousands[2] of Jews
Jews
in Nazi-occupied Hungary
Hungary
during the Holocaust from German Nazis and Hungarian Fascists during the later stages of World War II
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Samizdat
Samizdat
Samizdat
was a form of dissident activity across the Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
in which individuals reproduced censored and underground publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader. This grassroots practice to evade official Soviet censorship was fraught with danger, as harsh punishments were meted out to people caught possessing or copying censored materials
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The New Times (magazine)
The New Times (Russian: Но́вые Времена́) is a Russian language magazine in Russia.[1] The magazine was founded in 1943.[2] The current version, established in 1988,[citation needed], is a liberal, independent Russian weekly news magazine, publishing for Russia and Armenia. (During the Soviet times it was a multi-language political magazine which followed the official party line.) Its chief editor is Russian investigative journalist, political scientist, writer and radio host Yevgenia Albats.[3] The magazine contains articles on politics, economics, social life and journalist investigations. Columnists provide the readers with their opinions regarding recent news and events.References[edit]^ The New Times website ^ "Media and Journalism in Russia". SRAS. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ "Редакция New Times". Retrieved 23 February 2010. External links[edit]newtimes.ruThis news magazine or journal-related article is a stub
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First Chechen War
Chechen
Chechen
victoryKhasav-Yurt Accord Russia– Chechen
Chechen
Peace Treaty Withdrawal of Russian federal troops from Chechnya
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Helsinki Final Act
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975
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