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Kosmos 553
Kosmos 553 (Russian: Космос 553 meaning Cosmos 553), known before launch as DS-P1-Yu No.55, was a Soviet satellite which was launched in 1973 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik
Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik
programme
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Satellite Catalog Number
The Satellite
Satellite
Catalog Number (also known as NORAD
NORAD
Catalog Number, NORAD
NORAD
ID, NASA catalog number, USSPACECOM object number or simply catalog number and similar variants) is a sequential 5-digit number assigned by USSPACECOM (United States Space Command) to all Earth orbiting satellites in order of identification. Before USSPACECOM, the catalog was maintained by NORAD. The first catalogued object, catalog number 00001, is the Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
launch vehicle, with the Sputnik 1 satellite assigned catalog number 00002.[1] As of August 2017[update], the National Space Science Data Center Master Catalog listed more than 42,900 tracked objects including more than 7,800 satellites launched into orbit since 1957.[2] See also[edit]International DesignatorReferences[edit]^ "SL-1 R/B Satellite
Satellite
details 1957-001A NORAD
NORAD
1"
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Orbital Decay
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods. These orbiting bodies can be a planet and its satellite, a star and any object orbiting it, or components of any binary system. Orbits do not decay without some friction-like mechanism which robs energy from the orbital motion. This can be any of a number of mechanical, gravitational, or electromagnetic effects
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Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
Aerospace Defense Command
(NORAD, /ˈnɔːræd/), known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a combined organization of the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and protection for Northern America.[4] Headquarters for NORAD and the NORAD/United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) center are located at Peterson Air Force Base in El Paso County, near Colorado
Colorado
Springs, Colorado. The nearby Cheyenne Mountain Complex
Cheyenne Mountain Complex
has the Alternate Command Center
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Cosmos (satellite)
Kosmos (Russian: Ко́смос, IPA: [ˈkozməs], Cosmos) is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and subsequently Russia. Kosmos 1, the first spacecraft to be given a Kosmos designation, was launched on 16 March 1962.Contents1 History 2 Early Kosmos satellites2.1 Kosmos 1 2.2 Kosmos 2 2.3 Kosmos 3 2.4 Kosmos 4 2.5 Kosmos 5 2.6 Kosmos 6 2.7 Kosmos 7 2.8 Kosmos 83 Other Kosmos satellites 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The first Soviet satellites orbiting Earth
Earth
were named Sputnik, Polyot (starting in 1963), Elektron (in 1964), Proton (in 1965), and Molniya (in 1965), but most have been called Kosmos since Kosmos 1 in 16 March 1962
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Anti-ballistic Missile
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense). Ballistic missiles are used to deliver nuclear, chemical, biological or conventional warheads in a ballistic flight trajectory
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Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Carrier Rocket
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad, and other infrastructure.[1] Although a carrier rocket's payload is often an artificial satellite placed into orbit, some spaceflights, such as sounding rockets, are sub-orbital, while others enable spacecraft to escape Earth orbit entirely. Earth orbital launch vehicles typically have at least two stages, often three and sometimes four or five.Contents1 Types1.1 By launch platform 1.2 By size 1.3 Suborbital 1.4 Orbital 1.5 Translunar and interplanetary2 Return to launch site 3 Distributed launch 4 Assembly 5 Regulation 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes[edit]A Saturn V
Saturn V
launch vehicle sends Apollo 15
Apollo 15
on its way to the Moon.Expendable launch vehicles are designed for one-time use
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Apsis
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Low Earth Orbit
A low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth
Earth
with an altitude of 2,000 km (1,200 mi) or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes. Objects below approximately 160 km (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss due to atmospheric drag.[1][2] With the exception of the 24 astronauts who flew lunar flights in the Apollo program
Apollo program
during the four-year period spanning 1968 through 1972, all human spaceflights have taken place in LEO or below. The International Space Station
International Space Station
conducts operations in LEO. The altitude record for a human spaceflight in LEO was Gemini 11
Gemini 11
with an apogee of 1,374.1 kilometres (853.8 mi)
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Geocentric Orbit
A geocentric orbit or Earth
Earth
orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon
Moon
or artificial satellites
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