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Kosmos 1974
Kosmos 1974 (Russian: Космос 1974 meaning Cosmos 1974) is a Soviet US-K
US-K
missile early warning satellite which was launched in 1988 as part of the Soviet military's Oko programme. The satellite is designed to identify missile launches using optical telescopes and infrared sensors.[2] Kosmos 1974 was launched from Site 41/1 at Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
in the Russian SSR.[5] A Molniya-M
Molniya-M
carrier rocket with a 2BL upper stage was used to perform the launch, which took place at 22:23 UTC on 3 October 1988.[3] The launch successfully placed the satellite into a molniya orbit
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Early Warning
Warning system
Warning system
is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individual or group to inform of a future danger. Its purpose is to enable the deployer of the warning system to prepare for the danger and act accordingly to mitigate or avoid it. Warnings cannot be effective unless people react to them. People are more likely to ignore a system that regularly produces false warnings (the cry-wolf effect), but reducing the number of false warnings generally also increases the risk of not giving a warning when it is needed.[2] Some warnings are non-specific: for instance, the probability of an earthquake of a certain magnitude in a certain area over the next decade. Such warnings cannot be used to guide short-term precautions such as evacuation
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Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.[1] Of those, about 1,000 were operational;[2] while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), and the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).[3] A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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United States Space Command
The United States Space Command
United States Space Command
(USSPACECOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Department of Defense, created in 1985 to help institutionalize[citation needed] the use of outer space by the United States Armed Forces. The Commander in Chief of U.S. Space Command (CINCUSSPACECOM), with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, also functioned as the Commander in Chief of the binational U.S.-Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command (CINCNORAD), and for the majority of time during USSPACECOM's existence also as the Commander of the U.S. Air Force major command Air Force Space Command. Military space-operations coordinated by USSPACECOM proved to be very valuable for the U.S.-led coalition in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. The U.S
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Kosmos (satellite)
Kosmos (Russian: Ко́смос, IPA: [ˈkozməs], Cosmos) is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and subsequently Russia. Kosmos 1, the first spacecraft to be given a Kosmos designation, was launched on 16 March 1962.Contents1 History 2 Early Kosmos satellites2.1 Kosmos 1 2.2 Kosmos 2 2.3 Kosmos 3 2.4 Kosmos 4 2.5 Kosmos 5 2.6 Kosmos 6 2.7 Kosmos 7 2.8 Kosmos 83 Other Kosmos satellites 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The first Soviet satellites orbiting Earth
Earth
were named Sputnik, Polyot (starting in 1963), Elektron (in 1964), Proton (in 1965), and Molniya (in 1965), but most have been called Kosmos since Kosmos 1 in 16 March 1962
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Molniya Orbit
A Molniya orbit
Molniya orbit
(Russian: Молния, IPA: [ˈmolnʲɪjə] ( listen), "Lightning") is a type of highly elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63.4 degrees, an argument of perigee of −90 degrees and an orbital period of one half of a sidereal day. Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites which have been using this type of orbit since the mid-1960s.[1][page needed] A satellite in a highly eccentric orbit spends most of its time in the neighborhood of apogee which for a Molniya orbit
Molniya orbit
is over the Northern Hemisphere, the sub-satellite point at apogee having a latitude of 63.4 degrees north
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Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 41
Site 41, also known as Lesobaza and SK-1, was a launch complex at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
in Russia. It consisted of a single pad, Site 41/1, and was used by R-7 derived rockets between 1959 and 1989. Site 41 was originally built for use by R-7A Semyorka
R-7A Semyorka
missiles. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, an armed missile was placed on Site 41. It would have had a response time of 8–12 hours should an order have been given to launch it.[1] No launches were conducted from Site 41 whilst it was operational. In 1963, the complex was converted for use by carrier rockets. The first launch from the complex was a suborbital test of an R-7A Semyorka missile, on 14 December 1965. The first orbital launch from the complex occurred on 17 March 1966, when a Vostok-2 rocket launched Kosmos 112
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Infrared Sensor
A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 400–700 nanometre range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). Their use is called thermography.Contents1 History1.1 Discovery and research of infrared radiation 1.2 First thermographic camera 1.3 Smart sensors2 Theory of operation 3 In use 4 Types4.1 Cooled infrared detectors 4.2 Uncooled infrared detectors5 Applications 6 Specifications 7 See also 8 ReferencesHistory[edit] Discovery and research of infrared radiation[edit] Infrared
Infrared
was discovered in 1800 by Sir William Herschel
Sir William Herschel
as a form of radiation beyond red light
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Optical Telescope
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors. There are three primary types of optical telescope:refractors, which use lenses (dioptrics) reflectors, which use mirrors (catoptrics) catadioptric telescopes, which combine lenses and mirrorsA telescope's light gathering power and ability to resolve small detail is directly related to the diameter (or aperture) of its objective (the primary lens or mirror that collects and focuses the light)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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