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Kosmos 186
KOSMOS 186 (Russian : Космос-186 meaning COSMOS 186) and KOSMOS 188 (respectively, COSMOS 188) were two unmanned Soviet Union spacecraft that incorporated a Soyuz programme
Soyuz programme
descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. MISSIONThe two Soviet spacecraft made the first fully automated space docking in the history of space exploration on October 30, 1967. Mutual search, approach, mooring, and docking were automatically performed by the IGLA-system on board Kosmos 186. After 3.5 hours of joint flight, the satellites parted on a command sent from the earth and continued to orbit separately. Officially, both made a soft landing in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
- Kosmos 186
Kosmos 186
on October 31, 1967 and Kosmos 188 on November 2, 1967
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Gagarin's Start
GAGARIN\'S START (Russian : Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskij start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 in 1961, the site was referred to as SITE NO.1 (Площадка №1, Ploshchadka No. 1) as the first one of its kind. It is also sometimes referred to as NIIP-5 LC1, Baikonur LC1 or GIK-5 LC1. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket by 1 January 1955
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Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31
SITE 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
, in Kazakhstan, is a launch site used by derivatives of the R-7 Semyorka missile. From 2011 onwards, it was supposed to be the launch site for manned Soyuz missions to the International Space Station
International Space Station
, when launches switched from the Soyuz-FG carrier rocket to the Soyuz-2 , which was unable to use the launch pad at Site 1/5 . However, Site 1/5 has undergone modifications that allow the manned ISS missions to be launched from it. Only few manned missions to the International Space Station
International Space Station
are launched from Site 31/6 ( Soyuz TMA-06M , Soyuz TMA-15M , Soyuz MS-02 ), when Site 1/5 is unavailable
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Zond 6
ZOND 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit. The spacecraft, which carried scientific probes including cosmic ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological payload, was a precursor to a manned circumlunar flight which the Soviets hoped could occur in December 1968, beating the American Apollo 8 . However, after orbiting the Moon Zond 6 crashed on its return to Earth due to a parachute failure. CONTENTS * 1 Mission * 2 Details * 3 See also * 4 External links MISSIONZond 6 was the official designation for Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 12. It was supposed to photograph the Moon in colour and in black and white from 8000 km and 2600 km ranges, then return to Earth, landing at Tyuratam only 16 km from the launch pad
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Soyuz 7K-OK No.1
SOYUZ 7K-OK NO.1 was an unmanned spacecraft of the Soyuz program , originally intended to perform a rendezvous maneouver with Kosmos 133 (Soyuz 7K-OK No.2). After the Kosmos 133
Kosmos 133
mission failed, the rocket was moved to the launch pad on December 12, 1966 and scheduled to launch on December 14, 1966, 4 PM local time. At ignition, one of the strap-on boosters failed to start and so an automatic command shut down the core stage and remaining strap-ons. Launch personnel began safeing the booster in preparation to take it down from the pad for examination. About 30 minutes after the aborted launch, the launch escape system suddenly activated. The Soyuz descent module was blasted free of the stack and touched down a quarter mile from the pad. Meanwhile, the exhaust from the LES caught the third stage of the booster on fire. Flames began curling down the side of the booster as launch personnel ran for cover
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Zond 5
ZOND 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program
Zond program
, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the moon, and the first to return safely to Earth. Although unmanned, Zond 5
Zond 5
carried the first Earthlings to reach the moon, including two tortoises, mealworms, wine flies, plants, and other lifeforms, and was also the first to return moon travelers safely to Earth. Zond 5, a version of the Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched by a Proton-K
Proton-K
carrier rocket with a Blok D
Blok D
upper stage to conduct scientific studies during its lunar flyby . CONTENTS * 1 The moon flight * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links THE MOON FLIGHTAfter Zond 4 's partial success in March 1968, a follow-up was launched on April 22
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Baikonur Cosmodrome
BAIKONUR COSMODROME (Russian : Космодро́м Байкону́р KOSMODROM BAYKONUR; Kazakh : Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı) is a spaceport located in southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. Baikonur
Baikonur
Cosmodrome is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility . The spaceport is located in the desert steppe of Baikonur
Baikonur
, about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Aral Sea and north of the river Syr Darya
Syr Darya
. It is near the Tyuratam railway station and is about 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level. The spaceport is currently leased by the Kazakh Government to Russia until 2050 , the spaceport is managed jointly by the Roscosmos State Corporation and the Russian Aerospace Forces
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Zond 7
ZOND 7, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program
Zond program
and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, the only truly successful test of L1, was launched towards the Moon
Moon
from a mother spacecraft (69-067B) on a mission of further studies of the Moon
Moon
and circumlunar space, to obtain color photography of Earth and the Moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems. Earth photos were obtained on August 9, 1969. On August 11, 1969, the spacecraft flew past the Moon
Moon
at a distance of 1984.6 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Zond 7
Zond 7
reentered Earth's atmosphere on August 14, 1969, and achieved a soft landing in a preset region south of Kustanai , Kazakhstan
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Space Station
A SPACE STATION, also known as an ORBITAL STATION or an ORBITAL SPACE STATION, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit ) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by lack of major propulsion or landing systems. Instead, other vehicles transport people and cargo to and from the station. As of September 2016 three space stations are in orbit: the International Space Station
International Space Station
, which is permanently manned, China's Tiangong-1 (defunct) and Tiangong-2 (launched 15 September 2016, not permanently manned). Previous stations include the Almaz
Almaz
and Salyut series , Skylab
Skylab
, and most recently Mir
Mir

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Zond 4
ZOND 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight. It was launched to test the spaceworthiness of the new capsule and to gather data about flights in circumterrestrial space . It was the first Soviet spacecraft to possess a computer, the 34 kg Argon 11. The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 354,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the Moon, It was launched away from the Moon probably to avoid trajectory complications with lunar gravity. However on re-entry the L1's guidance system failed. It hit the atmosphere precisely at the calculated time, but was not guided to generate lift and fly out of the atmosphere again. A ballistic re-entry would mean no recovery on Soviet soil, so the APO destruct system automatically blew up the capsule at 10 to 15 km altitude, 180–200 km off the African coast at Guinea
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Space Exploration
SPACE EXPLORATION is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology . While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes , the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight . While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy , predates reliable recorded history , it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, national prestige, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity, and developing military and strategic advantages against other countries
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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Apollo 1
Left to right: White, Grissom, Chaffee Apollo program
Apollo program
AS-202 Apollo 4 → APOLLO 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States
United States
Apollo program
Apollo program
, which had as its ultimate goal a manned lunar landing. The low Earth orbital test of the Apollo Command/Service Module never made its target launch date of February 21, 1967. A cabin fire during a launch rehearsal test on January 27 at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 killed all three crew members—Command Pilot Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom , Senior Pilot Edward H. White II , and Pilot Roger B. Chaffee
Roger B. Chaffee
—and destroyed the Command Module (CM). The name Apollo 1, chosen by the crew, was officially retired by NASA
NASA
in commemoration of them on April 24, 1967
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Soyuz 2
SOYUZ 2 (Russian : Союз 2, UNION 2) was an uncrewed spacecraft in the Soyuz family intended to be the target of a docking maneuver by the manned Soyuz 3 spacecraft. It was intended to be the first docking of a manned spacecraft in the Soviet space program. Although the two craft approached closely, the docking did not take place and the first successful Soviet docking of manned spacecraft took place in the joint Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 mission. CONTENTS * 1 Mission parameters * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links MISSION PARAMETERS * MASS: 6,450 kg (14,220 lb) * PERIGEE: 191 km (119 mi) * APOGEE: 229 km (142 mi) * INCLINATION: 51.70° * PERIOD: 88.60 minREFERENCES * ^ "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-03-04. FURTHER READING * Luna Cornea, Number 14, January/April 1998, p. 58, * The Fabricated Cosmonaut and the Nonexistent Prophecy, Luis Alfonso Gamez
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Kosmos 238
KOSMOS 238 (Russian : Космос 238 meaning Cosmos 238) was the final test series of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft prior to the launch of Soyuz 3 . It tested the orbital maneuvering system, reentry, descent and landing systems that had been modified and improved after the Soyuz 1 accident
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