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Kosmos 186
Kosmos 186
Kosmos 186
(Russian: Космос-186 meaning Cosmos 186) and Kosmos 188 (respectively, Cosmos 188) were two unmanned Soviet Union spacecraft that incorporated a Soyuz programme
Soyuz programme
descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. Mission[edit] The two Soviet spacecraft made the first fully automated space docking in the history of space exploration on October 30, 1967. Mutual search, approach, mooring, and docking were automatically performed by the IGLA-system on board Kosmos 186. After 3.5 hours of joint flight, the satellites parted on a command sent from the earth and continued to orbit separately. Officially, both made a soft landing in a predetermined region of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
- Kosmos 186
Kosmos 186
on October 31, 1967 and Kosmos 188
Kosmos 188
on November 2, 1967
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31
Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan, is a launch site used by derivatives of the R-7 Semyorka
R-7 Semyorka
missile. From 2011 onwards, it was supposed to be the launch site for manned Soyuz missions to the International Space Station, when launches switched from the Soyuz-FG carrier rocket to the Soyuz-2, which was unable to use the launch pad at Site 1/5. However, Site 1/5 has undergone modifications that allow the manned ISS missions to be launched from it. Only few manned missions to the International Space Station
International Space Station
are launched from Site 31/6 (Soyuz TMA-06M, Soyuz TMA-15M, Soyuz MS-02), when Site 1/5 is unavailable. It was first used on 14 January 1961, for an R-7A ICBM
ICBM
test mission. It is currently used for commercial Soyuz-FG/ Fregat
Fregat
missions, and Soyuz-2
Soyuz-2
launches
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Zond 5
Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth. Although unmanned, Zond 5
Zond 5
carried the first Earthlings to reach the Moon, including two tortoises, mealworms, wine flies, plants, and other lifeforms, and was also the first to return Moon
Moon
travelers safely to Earth. Zond 5, a version of the Soyuz 7K-L1
Soyuz 7K-L1
manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched by a Proton-K
Proton-K
carrier rocket with a Blok D
Blok D
upper stage to conduct scientific studies during its lunar flyby.Contents1 The moon flight 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksThe moon flight[edit] After Zond 4's partial success in March 1968, a follow-up was launched on April 22
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Zond 4
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program
Zond program
and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1
Soyuz 7K-L1
manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight. It was launched to test the spaceworthiness of the new capsule and to gather data about flights in circumterrestrial space. It was the first Soviet spacecraft to possess a computer, the 34 kg Argon 11.[1] The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 354,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the Moon, It was launched away from the Moon probably to avoid trajectory complications with lunar gravity. However, on re-entry the L1's guidance system failed. It hit the atmosphere precisely at the calculated time, but was not guided to generate lift and fly out of the atmosphere again
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Soyuz 7K-OK No.1
Soyuz
Soyuz
(Cyrillic: "Союз") is Russian for "Union", and was often used as an abbreviation for the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" ( Soyuz
Soyuz
Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) during the Communist era. It is also the name for the Soyuz
Soyuz
spacecraft, now the main vehicle used in missions and crew transfers to and from the International Space Station since NASA retired the Space Shuttle Program in 2011. In English, the term is left untranslated in the names of several Soviet-related concepts
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Gagarin's Start
Gagarin's Start[1] (Russian: Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskiy start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation.Contents1 Overview 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Further readingOverview[edit] The launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1
Vostok 1
in 1961, the site was referred to as Site No.1 (Площадка №1, Ploshchadka No. 1) as the first one of its kind. It is also sometimes referred to as NIIP-5 LC1, Baikonur LC1 or GIK-5 LC1. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket
R-7 rocket
by 1 January 1955
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Soyuz 7K-OK
Soyuz
Soyuz
(Cyrillic: "Союз") is Russian for "Union", and was often used as an abbreviation for the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" ( Soyuz
Soyuz
Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) during the Communist era. It is also the name for the Soyuz
Soyuz
spacecraft, now the main vehicle used in missions and crew transfers to and from the International Space Station since NASA retired the Space Shuttle Program in 2011. In English, the term is left untranslated in the names of several Soviet-related concepts
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Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur
Baikonur
Cosmodrome (Russian: Космодро́м Байкону́р Kosmodrom Baykonur; Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы Bayqoñ'yr ğar'yş aylağ'y) is a spaceport located in an enclave of Russia
Russia
within southern Kazakhstan. Baikonur
Baikonur
Cosmodrome is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility.[1] The spaceport is located in the desert steppe of Baikonur, about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Aral Sea
Aral Sea
and north of the river Syr Darya
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Space Exploration
Space exploration
Space exploration
is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality
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Space Station
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by lack of major propulsion or landing systems. Instead, other vehicles transport people and cargo to and from the station. As of April 2018[update], two space stations are in Earth orbit: the International Space Station (operational and permanently inhabited), and China's Tiangong-2 (operational but not permanently inhabited)
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Zond 6
Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program
Zond program
and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1
Soyuz 7K-L1
manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit. The spacecraft, which carried scientific probes including cosmic ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological payload, was a precursor to a manned circumlunar flight which the Soviets hoped could occur in December 1968, beating the American Apollo 8. However, after orbiting the Moon
Moon
Zond 6
Zond 6
crashed on its return to Earth due to a parachute failure.Contents1 Mission 2 Details 3 See also 4 External linksMission[edit] Zond 6
Zond 6
was the official designation for Soyuz 7K-L1
Soyuz 7K-L1
s/n 12
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Apollo 1
Left to right: White, Grissom, Chaffee Apollo program← AS-202 Apollo 4 →Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States
United States
Apollo program, which had as its ultimate goal a manned lunar landing.[1] The low Earth orbital test of the Apollo Command/Service Module never made its target launch date of February 21, 1967. A cabin fire during a launch rehearsal test on January 27 at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station Launch Complex 34
Launch Complex 34
killed all three crew members—Command Pilot Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Senior Pilot Ed White, and Pilot Roger B. Chaffee—and destroyed the Command Module (CM)
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Soyuz 7
Soyuz 7
Soyuz 7
(Russian: Союз 7, Union 7) was part of a joint mission with Soyuz 6
Soyuz 6
and Soyuz 8
Soyuz 8
that saw three Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz spacecraft
in orbit together at the same time, carrying a total of seven cosmonauts. The crew consisted of commander Anatoly Filipchenko, flight engineer Vladislav Volkov
Vladislav Volkov
and research-cosmonaut Viktor Gorbatko, whose mission was to dock with Soyuz 8
Soyuz 8
and transfer crew, as the Soyuz 4
Soyuz 4
and Soyuz 5 missions did
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Kosmos 238
Kosmos 238 (Russian: Космос 238 meaning Cosmos 238) was the final test series of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft prior to the launch of Soyuz 3
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