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Kornelia Ender
Kornelia Ender
Kornelia Ender
(born 25 October 1958 in Plauen, Saxony) is a former East German swimmer who at the 1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
became the first woman swimmer to win four gold medals at a single Olympic Games, all in world record times. It was later proven that the East German team doctors had systematically administered steroids to their athletes[1] (albeit without the athletes' knowledge). As she had exhibited symptoms of steroid use in 1976 (deep voice, overdeveloped body), strong suspicion was cast on the validity of Ender's accomplishments. Ender trained from a young age and won her first Olympic medals as a 13-year-old at the 1972 Olympics in Munich: three silver medals, including one in the 200 m individual medley, finishing behind Australia's Shane Gould. Over the following years she broke 32 world records in individual events, including the four at the Montreal Games
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Plauen
Plauen
Plauen
(German pronunciation: [ˈplaʊ̯ən])[2][3] is a town in the Free State of Saxony, east-central Germany. It is the capital town of the district Vogtlandkreis. The town is situated near the border of Bavaria
Bavaria
and the Czech Republic.Contents1 History 2 Industry and infrastructure 3 Main sights 4 Education and science 5 Notable residents 6 Twin cities6.1 Twin cities of Jößnitz (urban district) 6.2 Former twin cities7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Plauen
Plauen
was founded by Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
in the 12th century as "Plawe" and was passed to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
in 1327. The town was captured by the Archbishop of Magdeburg, Lippold von Bredow, in 1384. In 1466, it was passed to Albertine Saxony
Saxony
and later in 1569 to the Electorate of Saxony
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1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
(German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972. The sporting nature of the event was largely overshadowed by the Munich
Munich
massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September Palestinian terrorists. The 1972 Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
were the second Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime
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Doping In East Germany
The German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR) conducted a decades-long program of coercive administration and distribution of performance-enhancing drugs, such as testosterone and other anabolic steroids to its elite athletes for the purpose of bolstering the state's image and prestige by winning medals in international championships (such as the Olympics), known officially as State Plan 14.25. The drug regimens, given either with or without the knowledge of the athletes, resulted in victories in international competitions, including the Olympic Games. East Germany had been a pioneering state in doping, so much that it was considered to be the inventor of doping. Systematic doping of athletes ended with the fall of communism in East Germany in 1989, before German reunification a year later
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Track And Field
Track and field
Track and field
is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.[1] The name is derived from the sport's typical venue: a stadium with an oval running track enclosing a grass field where the throwing and jumping events take place. Track and field
Track and field
is categorized under the umbrella sport of athletics, which also includes road running, cross country running, and race walking. The foot racing events, which include sprints, middle- and long-distance events, race walking and hurdling, are won by the athlete with the fastest time. The jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who achieves the greatest distance or height. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin, discus and hammer
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Bobsled
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Bobsleigh" dated 2006-02-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh
or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh. The timed runs are combined to calculate the final score. The various types of sleds came several years before the first tracks were built in St. Moritz, Switzerland, where the original bobsleds were adapted upsized luge/skeleton sleds designed by the adventurously wealthy to carry passengers. All three types were adapted from boys' delivery sleds and toboggans. Competition naturally followed, and to protect the working class and rich visitors in the streets and byways of St Moritz, bobsledding was eventually banned from the public highway
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie (colloquial)[3][4]Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy• 
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Munich
Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps
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Focus (German Magazine)
Focus (companys's preferred spelling in capital letters) is a German-language news magazine published by Hubert Burda
Hubert Burda
Media.[1][2] Established in 1993 as an alternative to the Spiegel weekly news magazine,[3][4] since 2015 the editorial staff has been headquartered in Germany's capital of Berlin.[5] Alongside Spiegel and Stern, Focus is one of the three most widely circulated German weeklies.[6][7] The concept originated from
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East Germany
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic
Republic
(GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʀaːtɪʃə ʀepuˈbliːk], DDR), was a communist state[5][6] in Central Europe, during the Cold War
Cold War
period. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state."[6] From 1949 to 1990, it administered the portion of Germany
Germany
that had been occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II—the Soviet Occupation Zone
Soviet Occupation Zone
of the Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line
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Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone
Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone (CDMT; brand name Oral Turinabol) is an anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS). It is the 4-chloro-substituted derivative of metandienone (dehydromethyltestosterone).Contents1 Side effects 2 History 3 Society and culture3.1 Doping in sports4 See also 5 References 6 External linksSide effects[edit] See also: Anabolic steroid § Adverse effects History[edit] CDMT was the first original product of Jenapharm, an East German pharmaceutical company. The patent registration took place in 1961. The idea of combining the structures of 4-chlorotestosterone (clostebol) and metandienone originated from the chemist Albert Stachowiak.[citation needed] At the time this represented a unique dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effects after oral administration.[1] The product had been introduced for clinical use in 1965. Society and culture[edit] Doping in sports[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification
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LEN European Aquatics Championships
The European Aquatics Championships is the continental Aquatics championship for Europe, which is organised by LEN—the governing body for aquatics in Europe. The Championships are currently held every two years (in even years); and since 1999, they have included 4 aquatics disciplines: Swimming (long course/50m pool), Diving, Synchronised swimming
Synchronised swimming
and Open water swimming. Prior to 1999, the championships also included Water polo, which beginning in 1999 LEN split-off into a separate championships
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Swimming At The Summer Olympics
Swimming has been a sport at every modern Summer Olympics. It has been open to women since 1912. Along with track & field athletics and gymnastics, it is one of the most popular spectator sports at the Games
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Saxony
The Free State of Saxony[4] (German: Freistaat Sachsen [ˈfʁaɪ̯ʃtaːt ˈzaksn̩]; Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland
Poland
(Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary, Liberec and Ústí nad Labem Regions). Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony
Saxony
is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people. The history of the state of Saxony
Saxony
spans more than a millennium
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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FINA World Aquatics Championships
The FINA
FINA
World Championships or World Aquatics Championships are the World Championships for aquatics sports: swimming, diving, high diving, open water swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. They are run by FINA, and all swimming events are contested in a long course (50-metre) pool. The event was first held in 1973, and is now held every two years. From 1978 to 1998, the World Championships were held every four years, in the even years between Summer Olympic years
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