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Konstantinos Metaxas
Konstantinos Metaxas
Konstantinos Metaxas
(Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Μεταξάς, 1793–1870) was a Greek fighter of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
and politician from Cephalonia.Contents1 Biography1.1 Origin and activity in the War of Independence 1.2 Career in the independent Greek state2 ReferencesBiography[edit] Origin and activity in the War of Independence[edit] He was born in Argostoli
Argostoli
in 1793, as one of the four children of Nicholas Metaxas and Diamantina Andritsi. He studied law in Italy and returning to Cephalonia
Cephalonia
he worked as a lawyer
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Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio
The Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio (Greek: Ελληνόγλωσσο Ξενοδοχείο, "Hellenophone Hotel", meaning "Greek-speaking Hotel"), was a secret organization established in Paris
Paris
in 1814,[1] whose purpose was to educate the Greeks and prepare the struggle against Ottoman rule over Greece. Two of its founders were the Macedonian Grigorios Zalykis and the Epirote
Epirote
Athanasios Tsakalov.[2] The organization was a precursor of another organization, Filiki Eteria, of which Athanasios Tsakalov
Athanasios Tsakalov
was a founding member and which succeeded in mobilizing Greeks against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
culminating in the Greek War of Independence. Among the services of the organization to the Greek movement was the shipment of 40,000 weapons to Greeks in the Peloponnese, Epirus
Epirus
and Macedonia
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Phanariotes
Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks
Greeks
(Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: Fanarioți, Turkish: Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of Constantinople
Constantinople
where the Ecumenical Patriarchate is located, who traditionally occupied four important positions in the Ottoman Empire: Grand Dragoman, Grand Dragoman
Dragoman
of the Fleet, Hospodar of Moldavia, and Hospodar of Wallachia
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Ottoman Greece
Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece's borders were at some point in the past a part of the Ottoman Empire
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Ali Pasha Of Ioannina
Ali Pasha
Pasha
(1740 – 24 January 1822), variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina. His court was in Ioannina, and the territory he governed incorporated most of Epirus
Epirus
and the western parts of Thessaly
Thessaly
and Greek Macedonia. Ali had three sons: Muhtar Pasha, who served in the 1809 war against the Russians, Veli Pasha, who became pasha of the Morea Eyalet
Morea Eyalet
and Salih Pasha, governor of Vlore.[1][2] Ali first appears in historical accounts as the leader of a band of brigands who became involved in many confrontations with Ottoman state officials in Albania
Albania
and Epirus
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Armatoloi
Armatoloi
Armatoloi
(Greek plural Αρματολοί; singular Armatolos, Αρματολός; also called Armatoles in English) were Christian Greek irregular soldiers, or militia, commissioned by the Ottomans to enforce the Sultan's authority within an administrative district called an Armatoliki (Greek singular Αρματολίκι; plural Armatolikia, Αρματολίκια).[1] Armatolikia were created in areas of Greece that had high levels of brigandage (i.e. klephts), or in regions that were difficult for Ottoman authorities to govern due to the inaccessible terrain, such as the Agrafa
Agrafa
mountains of Thessaly, where the first armatoliki was established in the 15th century
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Kodjabashis
The kodjabashis (Greek: κοτζαμπάσηδες, kotzabasides; singular κοτζάμπασης, kotzabasis; Serbo-Croatian: kodžobaša, kodžabaša; from Turkish: kocabaṣı, hocabaṣı) were local Christian notables in parts of the Ottoman Balkans, most often referring to Ottoman Greece[1][2] and especially the Peloponnese. They were also known in Greek as proestoi or prokritoi (προεστοί/πρόκριτοι, "primates") or demogerontes (δημογέροντες, "elders of the people")
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Klepht
Klephts
Klephts
(/klɛfts/; Greek κλέφτης, kléftis, pl. κλέφτες, kléftes, which means "thief" and perhaps originally meant just "brigand"[2]) were highwaymen turned self-appointed armatoloi, anti-Ottoman insurgents, and warlike mountain-folk who lived in the countryside when Greece
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Daskalogiannis
Ioannis Vlachos (Greek: Ιωάννης Βλάχος), better known as Daskalogiannis
Daskalogiannis
(Δασκαλογιάννης; 1722/30 – June 17, 1771) was a wealthy shipbuilder and shipowner who led a Cretan revolt against Ottoman rule in the 18th century.[1][2][3]Contents1 Life and career 2 Leader of revolt 3 Legacy 4 References 5 SourcesLife and career[edit]The gulf of Loutro with the islet of Loutro (on the right).Ioannis Vlachos was born in Anopolis village in Sfakia, a semi-autonomous region of Crete, in 1722 or 1730. His father, who was a wealthy shipowner, sent him to be educated abroad
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Cosmas Of Aetolia
Cosmas of Aetolia, sometimes Kosmas of Aetolia
Aetolia
or Cosmas/Kosmas the Aetolian or Patrokosmas "Father Cosmas" (Greek: Κοσμάς Αιτωλός, Kosmas Etolos; born between 1700 and 1714 – died 1779), was a monk in the Greek Orthodox Church. Saint Cosmas, the "Equal to the Apostles," was officially proclaimed a Saint by the Orthodox Church of Constantinople
Orthodox Church of Constantinople
on 20 April 1961. His feast day is celebrated on 24 August, the date of his martyrdom.Contents1 Life 2 Legacy 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] Cosmas was born in the Greek village Mega Dendron
Mega Dendron
near the town of Thermo in the region of Aetolia.[1] He studied Greek and theology before becoming a monk after a trip to Mount Athos
Mount Athos
where he also attended the local Theological Academy. After two years Cosmas left Athos
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Dionysius The Philosopher
Dionysios Skylosophos
Dionysios Skylosophos
(Greek: Διονύσιος ὁ Σκυλόσοφος; c. 1560–1611), "the Dog-Philosopher" or "Dogwise"[1] ("skylosophist"[2]), was a Greek Orthodox bishop who led two farmer revolts against the Ottoman Empire, in Thessaly (1600) and Ioannina
Ioannina
(1611), with Spanish aid.[3]Contents1 Early life 2 Rebellions 3 Death 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Dionysius was born in 1541,[4] in Aydonat, Sesprotya, Ottoman Empire (modern Paramythia, Thesprotia, Greece). He was of Greek descent, from Macedonia (specifically Avdella, Grevena regional unit) with Epirotian parentage. At a very young age, Dionysius became a kaloyeros at Dichouni. At age 15, he went to Padua
Padua
where he studied medicine, philosophy, philology, logic, astronomy, and poetry
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Lambros Katsonis
Lambros Katsonis
Lambros Katsonis
(Greek: Λάμπρος Κατσώνης; Russian: Ламброс Кацонис; 1752–1804) was a Greek revolutionary hero of the 18th century; he was also a knight of the Russian Empire and an officer with the rank of colonel[1] in the Imperial Russian Army (or Navy), decorated with an Order of St. George, IV class medal. Life[edit] Born in Levadia, he joined the Orlov Revolt
Orlov Revolt
in 1770, but not pleased by the result he built up a small fleet and began harassing the Ottomans in the Aegean Sea. In 1778 he assembled a Greek pirate fleet of seventy vessels, which harassed the Turkish squadrons in the Aegean and forced the Ottomans to abandon the island of Kastelorizo; the castle on the island was renamed to Lambros Katsonis
Lambros Katsonis
Castle. In 1790 he was defeated at the Battle of Andros.[2] Katsonis had his hideout in the bay of Porto Kagio
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Maniots
The Maniots
Maniots
or Maniates (Greek: Μανιάτες) are the inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula, Laconia, in the southern Peloponnese, Greece. They were also formerly known as Mainotes and the peninsula as Maina. Maniots
Maniots
are described as descendants of the ancient Dorian population of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and as such related to the ancient Spartans. The terrain is mountainous and inaccessible (until recently many Mani villages could be accessed only by sea), and the regional name "Mani" is thought to have meant originally "dry" or "barren". The name "Maniot" is a derivative meaning "of Mani". In the early modern period, Maniots
Maniots
had a reputation as fierce and proudly independent warriors, who practiced piracy and fierce blood feuds
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Souliotes
The Souliotes
Souliotes
were an Orthodox Christian community of the area of Souli, in Epirus, known for their military prowess, their resistance to the local Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha, and their contribution to the Greek cause in the Greek War of Independence, under leaders such as Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
and Kitsos Tzavelas. The Souliotes
Souliotes
established an autonomous confederacy dominating a large number of neighbouring villages in the remote mountainous areas of Epirus, where they could successfully resist Ottoman rule
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Laconia
Laconia
Laconia
(Greek: Λακωνία), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
peninsula. Its administrative capital is Sparta
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Orlov Revolt
The Orlov revolt[a] (Greek: Ορλωφικά, Ορλοφικά, Ορλώφεια) was a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and later also in Crete
Crete
that broke out in February 1770, following the arrival of Russian Admiral Alexey Orlov, commander of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), to the Mani Peninsula
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