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Konkani Language
Konkan, includes the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa
Goa
and some parts of Kerala
Kerala
and
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Abhanga
Abhang
Abhang
or abhanga (Marathi: अभंग) is a form of devotional poetry sung in praise of the Hindu god Vitthala, also known as Vithoba. The word "abhang" comes from a for "non-" and bhang for "ending" or "interrupting", in other words, a flawless, continuous process, in this case referring to a poem.[1] By contrast, the devotional songs known as Bhajans focus on the inward journey. Abhangs are more exuberant expressions of the communitarian experience.[2] Abhanga is considered a form of the ovi
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 487 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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List Of Language Regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors. Many world languages have one or more language academies
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Malayalam Script
Malayalam
Malayalam
script (Malayāḷalipi; IPA: [mələjɑːɭə lɪpɪ] ( listen) / Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam
Malayalam
language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.[3] Malayalam
Malayalam
script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts in Kerala. Like many other Indic scripts, it is an alphasyllabary (abugida), a writing system that is partially “alphabetic” and partially syllable-based. The modern Malayalam alphabet has 13 vowel letters, 36 consonant letters, and a few other symbols
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Bahubali
Bahubali
Bahubali
(English: One With Strong Arms), a much revered figure among Jains, was the son of Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara of Jainism, and the younger brother of Bharata Chakravartin. He is said to have meditated motionless for one year in a standing posture (kayotsarga) and that during this time, climbing plants grew around his legs. After his year of meditation, Bahubali
Bahubali
is said to have attained omniscience (Kevala Gyana)
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Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
(Śravaṇa Beḷagoḷa) is a town located near Channarayapatna
Channarayapatna
of Hassan district
Hassan district
in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of the state. The Gommateshwara Bahubali
Bahubali
statue at Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
is one of the most important tirthas (pilgrimage destinations) in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty
Western Ganga dynasty
of Talakad
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Proto-Dravidian Language
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.[1] It is thought to have differentiated into Proto-North Dravidian, Proto-Central Dravidian, and Proto-South Dravidian, although the date of diversification is still debated.[2]Contents1 History 2 Reconstructed language 3 Speakers 4 Notes 5 References 6 See also 7 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Elamo-Dravidian
Elamo-Dravidian
languages As a proto-language, the Proto-Dravidian language
Proto-Dravidian language
is not itself attested in the historical record. Its modern conception is based solely on reconstruction. It is suggested that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd millennium BCE.[3] Reconstructed language[edit] Vowels: Proto-Dravidian contrasted between five short and long vowels: *a, *ā, *i, *ī, *u, *ū, *e, *ē, *o, *ō
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,111 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Nagpur University
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur
Nagpur
University
University
(RTMNU), formerly Nagpur
Nagpur
University, is a public university in the city of Nagpur
Nagpur
in the central Indian state of Maharashtra. It is one of India's oldest universities, the second oldest in Maharashtra. It is named after Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj, a renowned spiritual leader, orator and musician from Vidarbha
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