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Komeito
KOMEITO (公明党, Kōmeitō), formerly called NEW KOMEITO (abbreviated NKP), is a political party in Japan
Japan
founded by members of the Nichiren Buddhist -based new religious movement Soka Gakkai . New Komeito
Komeito
(the party's former name) was formed as a result of a merger between the historic Kōmeitō party and the New Peace Party on November 7, 1998. The three characters 公明党 have the approximate meanings of "public/government" (公 kō), "light/brightness" (明 mei), and "political party" (党 tō). The combination "kōmei" (公明) is usually taken to mean "justice" or "fairness". The word "New" was not part of the Japanese name, but was used in English to distinguish the party from its predecessor. In September 2014 the party changed its English name from New Komeito
Komeito
back to Komeito
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War
WAR is a state of armed conflict between states or societies . It is generally characterized by extreme aggression , destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces . An absence of war is usually called "peace ". WARFARE refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war
Total war
is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets , and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties . While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature , others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War II
World War II
, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests at up to 60 million
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Constitution Of Japan
The CONSTITUTION OF JAPAN ( Shinjitai
Shinjitai
: 日本国憲法 Kyūjitai
Kyūjitai
: 日本國憲法, Nihon-Koku Kenpō) is the fundamental law of Japan
Japan
. It was enacted on May 3, 1947, as a new constitution for a post-war Japan
Japan

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Electoral Fraud
ELECTORAL FRAUD, ELECTION MANIPULATION, or VOTE RIGGING is illegal interference with the process of an election , whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. What constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country. Many kinds of election fraud are outlawed in electoral legislation, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault , harassment or libel . Although technically the term 'electoral fraud' covers only those acts which are illegal, the term is sometimes used to describe acts which are legal, but considered morally unacceptable, outside the spirit of an election or in violation of the principles of democracy. Show elections , in which there is only one candidate, are sometimes classified as electoral fraud, although they may comply with the law and are presented more as referendums
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Nuclear Arms
A NUCLEAR WEAPON is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions , either fission (fission bomb ) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb ). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation . Since they are weapons of mass destruction , the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy
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Private Sector
The PRIVATE SECTOR is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the CITIZEN SECTOR, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit , and is not controlled by the State (areas of the economy controlled by the state being referred to as the public sector ). CONTENTS * 1 Employment * 2 Diversification * 3 Regulation * 4 See also * 5 References EMPLOYMENTThe private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector activities are guided by the motive to earn money. DIVERSIFICATIONIn free economy countries, such as the United States of America
United States of America
, the private sector is wider, and places fewer constraints on firms. In countries with more government authority, such as China
China
, the public sector makes up most of the economy. REGULATIONStates legally regulate the private sector
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Nichiren Buddhism
NICHIREN BUDDHISM (Japanese : Hokke-shū 法華宗) is a branch of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese priest Nichiren
Nichiren
(1222–1282) and belongs to the schools of so-called "Kamakura Buddhism
Buddhism
". Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism
Buddhism
has several major schools and many sub-schools, as well as several of Japan's new religions . Its many denominations have in common a focus on the chanting and recital of the Lotus Sutra , believed by adherents to imbue auspicious and extraordinary power
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Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels The Trial and The Castle . The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns
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Prefecture
A PREFECTURE (from the Latin
Latin
Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect
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Separation Of Church And State
The SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE is a philosophic concept for defining political distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state . Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state. In a society, the degree of political separation between the church and the civil state are determined by the legal structures and prevalent legal views that define the proper relationship between organized religion and the state. The Arm\'s length principle proposes a relationship wherein the two, political entities interact as organizations independent of the authority of the other
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Shimbun Akahata
SHIMBUN AKAHATA (しんぶん赤旗, Shinbun Akahata, lit. Newspaper Red Flag) is the daily organ of the Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party
in the form of a national newspaper . It was founded in 1928 and currently has both daily and weekly editions. Akahata has journalists based in the capitals of ten countries around the globe. They are Beijing
Beijing
, Berlin
Berlin
, Cairo
Cairo
, Hanoi
Hanoi
, London
London
, Mexico City , Moscow
Moscow
, New Delhi
New Delhi
, Paris
Paris
, and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
. Some of their journalism deals with activist politics, but they also do original reporting on a wide variety of political issues which are often untouched in Japan
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Himeji Castle
HIMEJI CASTLE (姫路城, Himeji-jō) is a hilltop Japanese castle complex located in the city of Himeji, Hyōgo , Japan. The castle is regarded as the finest surviving example of prototypical Japanese castle architecture, comprising a network of 83 buildings with advanced defensive systems from the feudal period . The castle is frequently known as Hakuro-jō or Shirasagi-jō ("White Egret Castle" or "White Heron
Heron
Castle") because of its brilliant white exterior and supposed resemblance to a bird taking flight. Himeji
Himeji
Castle dates to 1333, when Akamatsu Norimura built a fort on top of Himeyama hill. The fort was dismantled and rebuilt as Himeyama Castle in 1346, and then remodeled into Himeji
Himeji
Castle two centuries later
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Snap Election
A SNAP ELECTION is an election called earlier than expected. Generally it refers to an election in a parliamentary system called when not required (either by law or convention), usually to capitalize on a unique electoral opportunity or to decide a pressing issue. It differs from a recall election in that it is initiated by politicians (usually the head of government or ruling party) rather than voters, and from a by-election in that the winners will serve an entire term as opposed to the remainder of an already established term. Since the power to call snap elections usually lies with the incumbent, they usually result in increased majorities for the party already in power having been called at an advantageous time. However, snap elections can also backfire on the incumbent and resulting in a decreased majority or even the opposition winning or gaining power
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Japan Post
JAPAN POST (日本郵政公社, Nippon Yūsei Kōsha) was a government-owned corporation in Japan
Japan
that existed from 2003 to 2007, offering postal and package delivery services, banking services, and life insurance. It was the nation's largest employer, with over 400,000 employees , and ran 24,700 post offices throughout Japan. One third of all Japanese government employees worked for Japan
Japan
Post. As of 2005, the President of the company was Masaharu Ikuta , formerly Chairman of Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd
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Jūminhyō
A JūMINHYō (住民票) is a registry of current residential addresses maintained by local governments in Japan . Japanese law requires each citizen to report his or her current address to the local authorities who compile the information for tax, national health insurance and census purposes. Once a jūminhyō has been registered with the local government, one can register for various social services including the national health insurance plan. When proof of residence is required, such as for opening a bank account or registering children at a local school district, one needs to obtain a copy of this record from the local government office. Jūminhyō registration is also required in order to officially register a name seal (inkan ), which functions as one's official signature. The jūminhyō is different from a koseki , which is the formal record of a family's history
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Japan Echo
JAPAN ECHO was an English-language periodical on Japanese issues which was initially published in print form by Japan Echo Inc. between 1974 and 2010. Consisting mainly of translations into English of magazine and news articles originally published in Japanese, Japan Echo was launched with the support of Japan's Foreign Affairs Ministry "to enable people abroad to learn what the Japanese themselves are thinking and writing about the issues of the day." Though independently published, the Japanese government provided most of Japan Echo's funding for the duration of its existence. In 2010 budget cuts compelled the magazine to rebrand itself as JAPAN ECHO WEB, a purely online magazine published on a website operated by the Foreign Affairs Ministry. However, two years later the Japanese government shut it down and replaced it with a similar project called the Japan Foreign Policy Forum
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