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Kollol
KALLOL (Bengali : কল্লোল) refers to one of the most influential literary movements in Bengali literature , which can be placed approximately between 1923 and 1935. The name Kallol of the Kallol group derives from a magazine of the same name (which translates as 'the sound of waves' in Bengali ). Kallol was the main mouthpiece for a group of young writers starting their careers around that time including Premendra Mitra , Kazi Nazrul Islam , and Buddhadeb Basu . A number of other magazines that followed Kallol can also be placed as part of the general movement. These include Uttara (1925), Pragati (1926), Kalikolom (1926), and Purbasha (1932)
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Fountain (Duchamp)
FOUNTAIN is a 1917 work produced by Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
. The piece was a porcelain urinal , which was signed "R.Mutt" and titled Fountain. Submitted for the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists, in 1917, the first annual exhibition by the Society to be staged at The Grand Central Palace in New York, Fountain was rejected by the committee, even though the rules stated that all works would be accepted from artists who paid the fee. Fountain was displayed and photographed at Alfred Stieglitz
Alfred Stieglitz
's studio, and the photo published in The Blind Man , but the original has been lost. The work is regarded by art historians and theorists of the avant-garde, such as Peter Bürger, as a major landmark in 20th-century art. Seventeen replicas commissioned by Duchamp in the 1960s now exist
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Black Square (painting)
THE BLACK SQUARE, BLACK SQUARE or MALEVICH\'S BLACK SQUARE is an iconic painting by Kazimir Malevich
Kazimir Malevich
. The first version was done in 1915. Malevich made four variants of which the last is thought to have been painted during the late 1920s or early 1930s. The Black Square was first shown in The Last Futurist Exhibition 0.10 in 1915. The work is frequently invoked by critics, historians, curators, and artists as the “zero point of painting", referring to the painting's historical significance and paraphrasing Malevich. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Historical context * 3 Perception * 4 Conservation * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYMalevich painted his first Black Square in 1915. He made four variants of which the last is thought to have been painted during the late 1920s or early 1930s, despite the author's "1913" inscription on the reverse
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The Cabinet Of Dr. Caligari
THE CABINET OF DR. CALIGARI (GERMAN : DAS CABINET DES DR. CALIGARI) is a 1920 German silent horror film, directed by Robert Wiene and written by Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer . Considered the quintessential work of German Expressionist cinema, it tells the story of an insane hypnotist ( Werner Krauss
Werner Krauss
) who uses a somnambulist ( Conrad Veidt ) to commit murders. The film features a dark and twisted visual style, with sharp-pointed forms, oblique and curving lines, structures and landscapes that lean and twist in unusual angles, and shadows and streaks of light painted directly onto the sets. The script was inspired by various experiences from the lives of Janowitz and Mayer, both pacifists who were left distrustful of authority after their experiences with the military during World War I
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Six Characters In Search Of An Author
SIX CHARACTERS IN SEARCH OF AN AUTHOR (Italian : Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore ) is an Italian play by Luigi Pirandello
Luigi Pirandello
, written and first performed in 1921. An absurdist metatheatrical play about the relationship among authors, their characters, and theatre practitioners, it premiered at the Teatro Valle
Teatro Valle
in Rome
Rome
to a mixed reception, with shouts from the audience of "Manicomio!" ("Madhouse!") and "Incommensurabile!" ("Incommensurable!"), a reference to the play's illogical progression. Reception improved at subsequent performances, especially after Pirandello provided for the play's third edition, published in 1925, a foreword clarifying its structure and ideas. The play had its American premiere in 1922 on Broadway at the Princess Theatre and was performed for over a year off-Broadway at the Martinique Theatre beginning in 1963
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Ulysses (novel)
ULYSSES is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce
James Joyce
. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and then published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday. It is considered to be one of the most important works of modernist literature and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement". According to Declan Kiberd , "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking." Ulysses chronicles the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin
Dublin
in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904
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The Metamorphosis
THE METAMORPHOSIS (German : DIE VERWANDLUNG) is a novella written by Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
which was first published in 1915 . CONTENTS* 1 Plot * 1.1 Part I * 1.2 Part II * 1.3 Part III * 2 Characters * 2.1 Gregor Samsa * 2.2 Grete Samsa * 2.3 Mr. Samsa * 2.4 Mrs. Samsa * 3 Translation * 4 English translations * 5 Publications * 6 Adaptations to other media * 6.1 Film * 6.2 Print * 6.3 Stage and opera * 6.4 Music * 6.5 Radio * 7 In popular culture * 8 References * 9 External links PLOTPART IOne day, Gregor Samsa, a traveling salesman, wakes up to find himself transformed into a giant insect (the most common translation of the German description ungeheuer Ungeziefer, literally "monstrous vermin"). He reflects on how dreary life as a traveling salesman is. As he looks at the wall clock, he notices that he has overslept and missed his train for work
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In Search Of Lost Time
IN SEARCH OF LOST TIME (French : À LA RECHERCHE DU TEMPS PERDU) – previously also translated as REMEMBRANCE OF THINGS PAST – is a novel in seven volumes , written by Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
(1871–1922). It is considered to be his most prominent work, known both for its length and its theme of involuntary memory , the most famous example being the "episode of the madeleine " which occurs early in the first volume. It gained fame in English in translations by C. K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin as Remembrance of Things Past, but the title In Search of Lost Time, a literal rendering of the French, has gained usage since D. J. Enright adopted it for his revised translation published in 1992
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Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
LES DEMOISELLES D\'AVIGNON (THE YOUNG LADIES OF AVIGNON, and originally titled THE BROTHEL OF AVIGNON) is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
(1881–1973). The work portrays five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Carrer d'Avinyó (Avignon Street) in Barcelona
Barcelona
. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine . The women appear as slightly menacing and rendered with angular and disjointed body shapes. Three figures on the left exhibit facial features in the Iberian style of Picasso's native Spain, while the two on the right are shown with African mask-like features
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The Firebird
THE FIREBIRD (French : L'Oiseau de feu; Russian : Жар-птица, Zhar-ptitsa) is a ballet by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
, written for the 1910 Paris season of Sergei Diaghilev 's Ballets Russes , with choreography by Michel Fokine . The scenario by Alexandre Benois and Fokine is based on Russian fairy tales of the magical glowing bird that can be both a blessing and a curse to its owner. Premiered in Paris on 25 June 1910, the work was an instant success with both audience and critics. The ballet has historic significance not only as Stravinsky's breakthrough piece, but also as the beginning of the collaboration between Diaghilev and Stravinsky that would also produce Petrushka
Petrushka
, The Rite of Spring , Pulcinella and others
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Afternoon Of A Faun (Nijinsky)
The ballet THE AFTERNOON OF A FAUN (French: L'Après-midi d'un faune) was choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky for the Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
and first performed in the Théâtre du Châtelet
Théâtre du Châtelet
in Paris
Paris
on 29 May 1912. Nijinsky danced the main part himself. As its score it used the Prélude à l\'après-midi d\'un faune by Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
. Both the music and the ballet were inspired by the poem L\'Après-midi d\'un faune by Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
. The costumes and sets were designed by the painter Léon Bakst
Léon Bakst
. The style of the ballet, in which a young faun meets several nymphs , flirts with them and chases them, was deliberately archaic
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Nude Descending A Staircase, No. 2
NUDE DESCENDING A STAIRCASE, NO. 2 (French: Nu descendant un escalier n° 2) is a 1912 painting by Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
. The work is widely regarded as a Modernist
Modernist
classic and has become one of the most famous of its time. Before its first presentation at the Parisian 1912 Salon des Indépendants , it was rejected by the Cubists as too Futurist . Yet the work was exhibited with the same group at Galeries J. Dalmau, Exposició d'Art Cubista, in Barcelona, 20 April–10 May 1912, and subsequently caused a huge stir during its exhibition at the 1913 Armory Show
Armory Show
in New York. The painting was reproduced in Les Peintres Cubistes, Méditations Esthétiques by Guillaume Apollinaire , published in 1913. Nude Descending a Staircase is in the Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art

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The Waste Land
THE WASTE LAND is a long poem by T. S. Eliot . It is widely regarded as one of the most important poems of the 20th century and a central work of modernist poetry . Published in 1922, the 434-line poem first appeared in the United Kingdom in the October issue of The Criterion and in the United States in the November issue of The Dial . It was published in book form in December 1922. Among its famous phrases are "April is the cruellest month", "I will show you fear in a handful of dust", and the mantra in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language "Shantih shantih shantih ". Eliot's poem loosely follows the legend of the Holy Grail
Holy Grail
and the Fisher King combined with vignettes of contemporary British society. Eliot employs many literary and cultural allusions from the Western canon , Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Hindu Upanishads
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The Magic Mountain
THE MAGIC MOUNTAIN (German: Der Zauberberg) is a novel by Thomas Mann , first published in November 1924. It is widely considered to be one of the most influential works of 20th century German literature
German literature
. Mann started writing what was to become The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain
in 1912. It began as a much shorter narrative which revisited in a comic manner aspects of Death in Venice
Death in Venice
, a novella that he was then preparing for publication. The newer work reflected his experiences and impressions during a period when his wife, who was suffering from a lung complaint, was confined to Dr. Friedrich Jessen's Waldsanatorium in Davos
Davos
, Switzerland for several months. In May and June 1912 Mann visited her and became acquainted with the team of doctors who were treating her in this cosmopolitan institution
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Fallingwater
FALLINGWATER or the KAUFMANN RESIDENCE is a house designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, 43 miles (69 km) southeast of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
. The home was built partly over a waterfall on Bear Run in the Mill Run section of Stewart Township , Fayette County, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, in the Laurel Highlands of the Allegheny Mountains
Allegheny Mountains
. The house was designed as a weekend home for the family of Liliane Kaufmann and her husband, Edgar J. Kaufmann , owner of Kaufmann\'s department store . Time cited it after its completion as Wright's "most beautiful job"; it is listed among Smithsonian 's "Life List of 28 places to visit before you die". It was designated a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
in 1966
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The Blue Lotus
THE BLUE LOTUS (FRENCH: LE LOTUS BLEU) is the fifth volume of The Adventures of Tintin , the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé . Commissioned by the conservative Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle for its children's supplement Le Petit Vingtième
Le Petit Vingtième
, it was serialised weekly from August 1934 to October 1935 before being published in a collected volume by Casterman in 1936. Continuing where the plot of the previous story, Cigars of the Pharaoh , left off, the story tells of young Belgian reporter Tintin and his dog Snowy , who are invited to China in the midst of the 1931 Japanese invasion , where he reveals the machinations of Japanese spies and uncovers a drug-smuggling ring. In creating The Blue Lotus, Hergé
Hergé
exhibited a newfound emphasis on accuracy and documentation in his portrayal of foreign societies
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