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Koine Greek
Koine Greek
Koine Greek
(UK English /ˈkɔɪniː/,[1] US English /kɔɪˈneɪ/, /ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/;[2][3]), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity and the early Byzantine era, or Late Antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries
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Georgios Hatzidakis
Georgios Nicolaou Hatzidakis (Greek: Γεώργιος Νικολάου Χατζιδάκις; 23 November [O.S. 11 November] 1843, in Myrthios, Ottoman Crete
Ottoman Crete
– 28 June 1941, in Athens) was a Greek philologist, who is regarded as the father of linguistics in Greece. He was the first chair of Linguistics
Linguistics
and Indian Philology at the University of Athens
Athens
in 1890–1923. Life and work[edit] His family was traditionally part of the elevations on the island Crete against the Ottoman Empire. His grandfather Kyriako had taken part as a captain in the uprising of 1821, at the age of 18 Georgios himself took, after the school visit share into Rethymno at the side of his father in the uprising of 1866. After other three-year school visit in Athen he signed up Chatzidakis at the faculty of philosophy of the university of Athen for classical philology
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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Apollonius Dyscolus
Apollonius Dyscolus (Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Δύσκολος; fl. 2nd century AD) is considered one of the greatest of the Greek grammarians.Contents1 Life 2 References 3 Sources 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife[edit] He was born at Alexandria, son of Mnesitheus. The dates for his life are not known. His son Aelius Herodianus dedicated a work to Marcus Aurelius, which places Apollonius in the early to middle 2nd century. Nicknamed Δύσκολος, meaning "Surly" or "Grouchy" or "Hard to Get Along With," because of his irascible and heavily analytical personality, he lived in the reigns of Hadrian
Hadrian
and Antoninus Pius. He spent the greater part of his life in his native city of Alexandria, where he died; he is also said to have visited Rome and attracted the attention of Antoninus
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Aelius Herodianus
Aelius Herodianus (Greek: Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός) or Herodian (fl. 2nd century CE) was one of the most celebrated grammarians of Greco-Roman antiquity. He is usually known as Herodian except when there is a danger of confusion with the historian also named Herodian. Herodian was the son of Apollonius Dyscolus and was born in Alexandria. From there he seems to have moved to Rome, where he gained the favour of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, to whom he dedicated a work on prosody.Contents1 Works 2 Editions 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksWorks[edit] Herodian was held in very high esteem by subsequent grammarians; Priscian
Priscian
describes him as maximus auctor artis grammaticae ("the greatest creator of grammatical art"). He wrote many works, but they are mostly fragmentary and it is very difficult to compile an accurate list of them
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Dialect Levelling
Dialect
Dialect
levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization
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Atticism
Atticism (meaning "favouring Attica", the region that includes Athens in Greece) was a rhetorical movement that began in the first quarter of the 1st century BC; it may also refer to the wordings and phrasings typical of this movement, in contrast with various contemporary forms of Koine Greek (both literary and vulgar), which continued to evolve in directions guided by the common usages of Hellenistic Greek. Atticism was portrayed as a return to Classical methods after what was perceived as the pretentious style of the Hellenistic, Sophist rhetoric and called for a return to the approaches of the Attic orators. Although the plainer language of Atticism eventually became as belabored and ornate as the perorations it sought to replace, its original simplicity meant that it remained universally comprehensible throughout the Greek world
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Byzantine Era
The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or " Era of the World" (Ancient Greek: Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους,[1] also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. It was also the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire[note 1] from 988 to 1453, and of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. The calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi
Anno Mundi
epoch derived from the Septuagint
Septuagint
version of the Bible
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Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire
Empire
(/sɪˈljuːsɪd/;[6] Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.[7][8][9][10] Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
(321 BC), and from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST List is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics. It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia,[1] and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States.[2] Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list, now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted.Contents1 History 2 Services 3 Projects 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Between 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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