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Knickpoint
In geomorphology, a knickpoint or nickpoint is part of a river or channel where there is a sharp change in channel slope, such as a waterfall or lake. Knickpoints reflect different conditions and processes on the river, often caused by previous erosion due to glaciation or variance in lithology
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Horseshoe Falls, Canada
Horseshoe Falls, also known as Canadian Falls, is the largest of the three waterfalls that collectively form Niagara Falls on the Niagara River along the Canada–United States border. Approximately 90% of the Niagara River, after diversions for hydropower generation, flows over Horseshoe Falls. The remaining 10% flows over American Falls and Bridal Veil Falls. It is located between Terrapin Point on Goat Island in the US state of New York, and Table Rock in the Canadian province of Ontario.[2]Contents1 International border 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesInternational border[edit]1819 Boundary Commission map of the International Boundary Line cutting through Horseshoe FallsWhen the boundary line between the United States and Canada was determined in 1819, based on the Treaty of Ghent, the northeastern end of the Horseshoe Falls was in New York, United States, flowing around the Terrapin Rocks, which were once connected to Goat Island by a series of bridges
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Channeled Scablands
The Channeled Scablands are a relatively barren and soil-free region of interconnected relict and dry flood channels, coulees and cataracts eroded through Palouse loess and into typically flat-lying basalt flows by cataclysmic floods within eastern part of the U.S. state of Washington.[1][2] The channeled scablands were scoured by over 40 cataclysmic floods during the Last Glacial Maximum and innumerable more older cataclysmic floods over the last two million years.[3][4][5] These cataclysmic floods were repeatedly unleashed when a large glacial lake repeatedly drained and swept across eastern Washington and down the Columbia River Plateau during the Pleistocene epoch. The last of the cataclysmic floods occurred between 18,200 and 14,000 years ago.[6] Geologist J Harlen Bretz coined the term "channeled scablands" in a series of papers written in the 1920s
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Isostatic Rebound
Post-glacial rebound
Post-glacial rebound
(also called either isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, through a process known as isostatic depression. Post-glacial rebound
Post-glacial rebound
and isostatic depression are different parts of a process known as either glacial isostasy, glacial isostatic adjustment, or glacioisostasy. Glacioisostasy is the solid Earth
Earth
deformation associated with changes in ice mass distribution.[1] The most obvious and direct effects of post-glacial rebound are readily apparent in parts of Northern Eurasia, Northern America, Patagonia, and Antarctica
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Niagara Falls
Niagara
Niagara
Falls (/naɪˈæɡrə/) is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province Ontario
Ontario
and the American state of New York. They form the southern end of the Niagara
Niagara
Gorge. From largest to smallest, the three waterfalls are the Horseshoe Falls, the American Falls
American Falls
and the Bridal Veil Falls. The Horseshoe Falls lies on the border of the United States
United States
and Canada[1] with the American Falls
American Falls
entirely on the United States' side, separated by Goat Island
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Horseshoe Falls
Horseshoe Falls, also known as Canadian Falls, is the largest of the three waterfalls that collectively form Niagara Falls on the Niagara River along the Canada–United States border. Approximately 90% of the Niagara River, after diversions for hydropower generation, flows over Horseshoe Falls. The remaining 10% flows over American Falls and Bridal Veil Falls. It is located between Terrapin Point on Goat Island in the US state of New York, and Table Rock in the Canadian province of Ontario.[2]Contents1 International border 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesInternational border[edit]1819 Boundary Commission map of the International Boundary Line cutting through Horseshoe FallsWhen the boundary line between the United States and Canada was determined in 1819, based on the Treaty of Ghent, the northeastern end of the Horseshoe Falls was in New York, United States, flowing around the Terrapin Rocks, which were once connected to Goat Island by a series of bridges
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Wisconsin Glaciation
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordillera; the Innuitian ice sheet, which extended across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Greenland ice sheet; and the massive Laurentide ice sheet,[1] which covered the high latitudes of central and eastern North America. This advance was synchronous with global glaciation during the last glacial period, including the North American alpine glacier advance, known as the Pinedale glaciation. The Wisconsin glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation
extended from approximately 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamon interglacial (known globally as the Eemian
Eemian
stage) and the current interglacial, the Holocene
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Great Lakes
The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
(French: les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes[1] and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
through the Saint Lawrence River
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Post-glacial Rebound
Post-glacial rebound
Post-glacial rebound
(also called either isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, through a process known as isostatic depression. Post-glacial rebound
Post-glacial rebound
and isostatic depression are different parts of a process known as either glacial isostasy, glacial isostatic adjustment, or glacioisostasy. Glacioisostasy is the solid Earth
Earth
deformation associated with changes in ice mass distribution.[1] The most obvious and direct effects of post-glacial rebound are readily apparent in parts of Northern Eurasia, Northern America, Patagonia, and Antarctica
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Bridalveil Fall
Bridalveil Fall is one of the most prominent waterfalls in the Yosemite Valley in California, seen yearly by millions of visitors to Yosemite National Park.[1] The waterfall is 188 metres (617 ft) in height and flows year round.[2] The Ahwahneechee tribe believed that Bridalveil Fall was home to a vengeful spirit named Pohono who guarded the entrance to the valley and that those leaving the valley must not look directly into the waterfall lest they be cursed. They also believed that inhaling the mist of Bridalveil Fall would improve one's chances of marriage.Contents1 Geology 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksGeology[edit]Bridalveil Fall at low flow as seen from Tunnel View on September 2016.The glaciers that carved Yosemite Valley left many hanging valleys that spawned the waterfalls that pour into the valley. All of the waterways that fed these falls carved the hanging valleys into steep cascades with the exception of Bridalveil Fall
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Yosemite Valley
Yosemite Valley
Yosemite Valley
(/joʊˈsɛmɪtiː/ yoh-SEM-i-tee) is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park
in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about 7.5 miles (12 km) long and approximately 3000-3500 feet deep, surrounded by high granite summits such as Half Dome
Half Dome
and El Capitan, and densely forested with pines. The valley is drained by the Merced River, and a multitude of streams and waterfalls flow into it, including Tenaya, Illilouette, Yosemite and Bridalveil Creeks. Yosemite Falls
Yosemite Falls
is the highest waterfall in North America, and is a big attraction especially in the spring when the water flow is at its peak
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Dry Falls
Dry Falls
Dry Falls
is a 3.5-mile-long (5,600 m) scalloped precipice in central Washington, on the opposite side of the Upper Grand Coulee from the Columbia River, and at the head of the Lower Grand Coulee. According to the current geological model, catastrophic flooding channeled water at 65 miles per hour through the Upper Grand Coulee and over this 400-foot (120 m) rock face at the end of the last ice age. It is estimated that the falls were five times the width of Niagara,[1]:116 with ten times the flow of all the current rivers in the world combined.[2] Nearly twenty thousand years ago, as glaciers moved south through North America, an ice sheet dammed the Clark Fork River near Sandpoint, Idaho. Consequently, a significant portion of western Montana flooded, forming the gigantic Lake Missoula
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Washington (state)
Washington (/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/ ( listen)), officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region of the United States. Named after George Washington, the first president of the United States, the state was made out of the western part of the Washington Territory, which was ceded by Britain in 1846 in accordance with the Oregon Treaty
Oregon Treaty
in the settlement of the Oregon
Oregon
boundary dispute. It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Olympia is the state capital. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State to distinguish it from Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, which is often shortened to Washington. Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles (184,827 km2), and the 13th most populous state with over 7.4 million people
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Glacial Lake Outburst Flood
A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails. An event similar to a GLOF, where a body of water contained by a glacier melts or overflows the glacier, is called a Jökulhlaup. The dam can consist of glacier ice or a terminal moraine
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Glacial Lake
A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. They are formed when a glacier erodes the land, and then melts, filling the hole or space that it has created. Near the end of the last glacial period, roughly 10,000 years ago, glaciers began to retreat.[1] A retreating glacier often left behind large deposits of ice in hollows between drumlins or hills. As the ice age ended, these melted to create lakes. This is apparent in the Lake
Lake
District in Northwestern England
England
where post-glacial sediments are normally between 4 and 6 metres deep.[1] These lakes are often surrounded by drumlins, along with other evidence of the glacier such as moraines, eskers and erosional features such as striations and chatter marks. The scouring action of the glaciers pulverizes minerals in the rock over which the glacier passes
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