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Kingdom Of Croatia (1102–1526)
The Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Latin: Regnum Croatiae; Croatian: Hrvatsko kraljevstvo or Kraljevina Hrvatska) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović
Trpimirović
and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.[1][2] With the coronation of King Coloman of Hungary
Coloman of Hungary
as "King of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia" in 1102 in Biograd, the realm passed to the Árpád dynasty until 1301, when the (male) line of the dynasty died out. Then, kings from the Capetian House of Anjou, who were also cognatic descendants of the Árpád kings, ruled the kingdoms
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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić
Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić
Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić
(ca. 1350–1416) was a Ban of Croatia, Grand Duke of Bosnia and Duke
Duke
of Split. He was the most prominent member of the noble House of Hrvatinić, and one of the major influential feudal noblemen in Medieval Bosnia, that we know about from the Middle Ages. He was Grand Duke of Bosnia under three Bosnian kings: King Tvrtko I, King Stephen Dabiša and King Stephen Ostoja. In 1403 he was named regent for Hungary, Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia, and was made Duke
Duke
of Split.Contents1 Family Connections 2 Rise of Vukčić's power 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesFamily Connections[edit] Hrvoje was the eldest son of Duke
Duke
Vukac Hrvatinić. He had three brothers: Vuk (who was Ban of Croatia), Dragiša and Vojislav
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Kingdom Of Croatia (medieval)
The Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Latin: Regnum Croatiae; Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia
Croatia
(without western Istria
Istria
and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Kingdom existed as a sovereign state for nearly two centuries. Its existence was characterized by various conflicts and periods of peace or alliance with the Bulgarians, Byzantines, Hungarians, and competition with Venice for control over the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coast
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Trpimirović
Trpimirović dynasty
Trpimirović dynasty
(Croatian: Trpimirovići) was a native Croat dynasty that ruled, with interruptions, from 845 until 1091 in Croatia and was named after Trpimir I, the first member and the founder
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Demetrius Zvonimir
Demetrius Zvonimir (Croatian: Dmitar Zvonimir, pronounced [dmîtar zʋônimiːr], Latin: Demetrius Suinnimir/Zuonimir/Sunimirio, died 20 April 1089i[›]) was King of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
from 1075 until his death in 1089. He was crowned as king in Solin on 8 October 1076. Zvonimir also ruled as Ban of Slavonia
Slavonia
(1064–1074), and was named Duke of Croatia
Croatia
in around 1075. His native name was Zvonimir; he adopted the forename Demetrius (Dmitar in Croatian) at his coronation. He began as Ban of Slavonia in the service of King Peter Krešimir IV. Afterwards, he was appointed as Duke of Croatia
Croatia
by Peter Krešimir IV, who later declared him as his heir
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Coloman Of Hungary
Coloman the Learned,[1][2] also the Book-Lover[3] or the Bookish[4] (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán; Croatian: Koloman; Slovak: Koloman Učený; c. 1070 – 3 February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia
King of Croatia
from 1097 until his death. Because Coloman and his younger brother Álmos
Álmos
were underage when their father King Géza I of Hungary
Géza I of Hungary
died, their uncle Ladislaus I ascended the throne in 1077. Ladislaus prepared Coloman—who was "half-blind and humpbacked", according to late medieval Hungarian chronicles—for a church career, and Coloman was eventually appointed bishop of Eger or Várad (Oradea, Romania) in the early 1090s. The dying King Ladislaus preferred Álmos
Álmos
to Coloman when nominating his heir in early 1095. Coloman fled from Hungary but returned around 19 July 1095 when his uncle died
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Árpád Dynasty
The Árpáds or Arpads (Hungarian: Árpádok, Croatian: Arpadovići, Serbian: Арпадовци, translit. Arpadovci, Slovak: Arpádovci, Turkish: Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary
Principality of Hungary
in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
from 1000 to 1301
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Capetian House Of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to as Angevin, meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
during the 13th century. Later the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
— the Kingdom of Naples
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Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb
(/ˈzɑːɡrɛb/ ZAH-greb, Croatian pronunciation: [zǎːɡreb] ( listen))[7] is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.[8] It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava
Sava
river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica
Medvednica
mountain. Zagreb
Zagreb
lies at an elevation of approximately 122 m (400 ft) above sea level.[9][10] The estimated population of the city in 2018 is 809,773. Zagreb metropolitan area population is slightly above 1.1 million inhabitants and it makes approximately a quarter of a total population of Croatia. Zagreb
Zagreb
is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day
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Republic Of Venice
The Republic of Venice
Venice
(Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Venetian: Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy
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Dalmatia
^ Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is not an official subdivision of the Republic of Croatia; it constitutes a historical region only.^ The figures are an approximation based on statistical data for the four southernmost Croatian Counties ( Zadar
Zadar
without Gračac, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva).[1][2] Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(Croatian: Dalmacija, [dǎlmaːt͡sija]; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia,[3] alongside Croatia
Croatia
proper, Slavonia
Slavonia
and Istria. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from island of Rab
Rab
in the north to the Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
in the south
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Croatian Nobility
Croatian nobility
Croatian nobility
(Croatian: plemstvo, lit. 'vlastelin'; French: la noblesse)[1] was a privileged social class in Croatia
Croatia
during the Antiquity and Medieval periods of the country's history. Noble families in the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
included high ranking populates from Slavonia, Dalmatia, Istria, Bosnia and Republic of Ragusa. Members belonged to an elite social hierarchy, normally placed immediately behind blood royalty, that possessed considerably more privileges or eminence than most other classes in a society. Membership thereof typically was often hereditary. Historically, membership in the nobility and the prerogatives thereof have been regulated or acknowledged by the monarch. Acquisition of sufficient power, wealth, military prowess or royal favour enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Croatia
Coordinates: 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500 Republic
Republic
of Croatia Republika Hrvatska[a]FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Lijepa naša domovino" "Our Beautiful Homeland"Location of  Croatia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Zagreb 45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000Official languages CroatianRecognised national languages See Languages of Cro
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Ottoman Wars In Europe
The Ottoman wars in Europe
Ottoman wars in Europe
were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century. The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars
Byzantine–Ottoman wars
in the 13th century, followed by the Bulgarian–Ottoman wars
Bulgarian–Ottoman wars
and the Serbian–Ottoman wars in the 14th century. Much of this period was characterized by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
made further inroads into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, culminating in the peak of Ottoman territorial claims in Europe. The Ottoman–Venetian Wars
Ottoman–Venetian Wars
spanned four centuries, starting in 1423 and lasting until 1718
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