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Kingdom Of Croatia (925–1102)
The Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Latin: Regnum Croatiae; Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia
Croatia
(without western Istria
Istria
and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Kingdom existed as a sovereign state for nearly two centuries. Its existence was characterized by various conflicts and periods of peace or alliance with the Bulgarians, Byzantines, Hungarians, and competition with Venice for control over the eastern Adriatic
Adriatic
coast
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Nin, Croatia
Nin (Italian: Nona, Latin: Aenona or Nona) is a town in the Zadar County of Croatia, population 1,132, total municipality population 2,744 (2011).[1] Nin was historically important as a centre of a medieval Christian Bishopric. Up to the abolition and Latinization imposed by King Tomislav in the first half of the 10th century, Nin was the centre of the autonomous Croatian branch of the Church. Nin was also the seat of the Princes of Dalmatia. The Bishop Gregory of Nin (Grgur Ninski) was an important figure in the 10th century ecclesiastical politics of Dalmatia.Contents1 History 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksHistory[edit]Church of Saint NicholasA replica of Condura Croatica – Croatian boat from the 10th century in the Nin lagoon.The Church of the Holy Cross in Nin originates from the 9th century.Nin's historical center is located on an islet only 500 meters in diameter
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Pope
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] a child's word for "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven
Keys of Heaven
and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City,[4] a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5] The office of the pope is the papacy
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Biograd Na Moru
Biograd na Moru
Biograd na Moru
(Croatian pronunciation: [bîoɡraːd na môːru] or [biǒɡrad]) is a city and municipality in northern Dalmatia, Croatia
Croatia
and is significant for being the former capital of the medieval Croatian Kingdom. Its population is 5,569 (2011). Biograd is administratively part of the Zadar
Zadar
County
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Sovereign State
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area
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Bulgarians
Bulgarians
Bulgarians
(Bulgarian: българи, Bǎlgari, IPA: ['bɤɫɡɐri]) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and its neighboring regions.Contents1 Citizenship 2 Ethnogenesis2.1 Bulgarian ethnogenetic conception3 Genetic origins 4 History4.1 Bulgarian national movement5 Demographics 6 Related ethnic groups 7 Culture7.1 Language7.1.1 Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet 7.1.2 Name system7.2 Religion 7.3 Art and science 7.4 Cuisine 7.5 Folk beliefs and customs 7.6 Folk dress and music 7.7 Sport 7.8 Symbols8 Maps 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External linksCitizenship According to the Art.25 (1) of Constitution of Bulgaria, a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born to at least one parent holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by virtue of origin
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Byzantine Greeks
The Byzantine Greeks
Greeks
(or Byzantines) were the Greek-speaking Christian people of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and the Middle Ages.[1] They spoke medieval Greek and were the main inhabitants of the lands of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the Greek islands, Cyprus, and portions of the southern Balkans, and formed large minorities, or pluralities, in the coastal urban centres of the Levant
Levant
and northern Egypt
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Hungarians
Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary
Hungary
(as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians
Hungarians
live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine
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Republic Of Venice
The Republic of Venice
Venice
(Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Venetian: Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy
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Bishop
A bishop (English derivation[a][1][2][3] from the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic
Old Catholic
and Independent Catholic churches
Independent Catholic churches
and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop
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Gregory Of Nin
Gregory of Nin
Gregory of Nin
(Croatian: Grgur Ninski pronounced [ɡr̩̂ɡuːr nîːnskiː]; Latin: Gregorius Ninnius) was a medieval Croatian bishop of Nin who strongly opposed the Pope
Pope
and official circles of the Church[further explanation needed] and introduced the national language in the religious services after the Great Assembly in 926, according to traditional Croatian historiography. Until that time, services were held only in Latin (being under the jurisdiction of Roman influence before the Great Schism), not being understandable to a majority of the population. Not only was this important for Croatian language and culture, but it also made Christianity stronger within the Croatian kingdom.[1][page needed]Contents1 Historical facts 2 The statue 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingHistorical facts[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Dalmatia (theme)
The Theme of Dalmatia (Greek: θέμα Δαλματίας/Δελματίας, thema Dalmatias/Delmatias) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera (later called Zara and now Zadar).Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesOrigins[edit] Dalmatia first came under Byzantine control in the 530s, when the generals of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(r. 527–565) seized it from the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in the Gothic War
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Slovenia
Coordinates: 46°07′N 14°49′E / 46.117°N 14.817°E / 46.117; 14.817Republic of Slovenia Republika Slovenija  (Slovene)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Zdravljica  A Toast[i]Location of  Slovenia  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Ljubljana 46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.050°N 14.500°E / 46.050; 14.500Official languages Slovene[ii]Ethnic groups (2002[4])83% Slovenes 2% Serbs 2% Croats 1% Bosniaks 12% others (including Istrian Italians) / unspecifiedReligion Predominantly ChristianDemonym SloveneGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentBorut Pahor• Prime MinisterMiro Cerar[5]Legislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council•
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Peter Krešimir IV
Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great (Croatian: Petar Krešimir IV. Veliki, Latin: Petrus Cresimir) (died 1075), was King of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/5.[1] He was the last great ruler of the Krešimirović branch of the House of Trpimirović. Under his rule the Croatian realm reached its peak territorially, earning him the sobriquet "the Great", otherwise unique in Croatian history.[2] He kept his seat at Nin and Biograd na Moru,[3] however, the city of Šibenik holds a statue of him and is sometimes called Krešimir's city ("Krešimirov grad", in Croatian) because he is generally credited as the founder.[4][5]Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Territorial policy 1.3 Relations with Byzantium and the Normans 1.4 Death and succession2 Legacy 3 Ancestors 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Literature 7 External linksBiography[edit] Early years[edit]Peter Krešimir IV
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Árpád Dynasty
The Árpáds or Arpads (Hungarian: Árpádok, Croatian: Arpadovići, Serbian: Арпадовци, translit. Arpadovci, Slovak: Arpádovci, Turkish: Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary
Principality of Hungary
in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
from 1000 to 1301
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Coloman Of Hungary
Coloman the Learned,[1][2] also the Book-Lover[3] or the Bookish[4] (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán; Croatian: Koloman; Slovak: Koloman Učený; c. 1070 – 3 February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia
King of Croatia
from 1097 until his death. Because Coloman and his younger brother Álmos
Álmos
were underage when their father King Géza I of Hungary
Géza I of Hungary
died, their uncle Ladislaus I ascended the throne in 1077. Ladislaus prepared Coloman—who was "half-blind and humpbacked", according to late medieval Hungarian chronicles—for a church career, and Coloman was eventually appointed bishop of Eger or Várad (Oradea, Romania) in the early 1090s. The dying King Ladislaus preferred Álmos
Álmos
to Coloman when nominating his heir in early 1095. Coloman fled from Hungary but returned around 19 July 1095 when his uncle died
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