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King Of Prussia
The monarchs of Prussia
Prussia
were members of the House of Hohenzollern
House of Hohenzollern
who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia
Prussia
from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia. The Duchy had evolved out of the Teutonic Order, a Roman Catholic crusader state and theocracy located along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The Teutonic Knights were under the leadership of a Grand Master, the last of whom, Albert, converted to Protestantism and secularized the lands, which then became the Duchy of Prussia. The Duchy was initially a vassal of the Kingdom of Poland, as a result of the terms of the Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
whereby Albert was granted the Duchy as part of the terms of peace following the Prussian War
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George William, Elector Of Brandenburg
George William (German: Georg Wilhelm; 13 November 1595 – 1 December 1640), of the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
dynasty, was margrave and elector of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and duke of Prussia from 1619 until his death. His reign was marked by ineffective governance during the Thirty Years' War. He was the father of Frederick William, the "Great Elector".Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Rule2 Ancestors 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Born in Cölln
Cölln
on the Spree
Spree
(today part of Berlin), George William was the son of John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg
John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg
and Anna of Prussia. His maternal grandfather was Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia. In 1616 George William married Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
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Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea
Sea
is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany
Germany
and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea
Sea
drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat
Kattegat
by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt
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George William, Elector Of Brandenburg
George William (German: Georg Wilhelm; 13 November 1595 – 1 December 1640), of the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
dynasty, was margrave and elector of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and duke of Prussia from 1619 until his death. His reign was marked by ineffective governance during the Thirty Years' War. He was the father of Frederick William, the "Great Elector".Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Rule2 Ancestors 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Born in Cölln
Cölln
on the Spree
Spree
(today part of Berlin), George William was the son of John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg
John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg
and Anna of Prussia. His maternal grandfather was Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia. In 1616 George William married Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
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Frederick William, Elector Of Brandenburg
Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg
Elector of Brandenburg
and Duke
Duke
of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "the Great Elector"[1] (der Große Kurfürst) because of his military and political achievements. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously
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Franco-Prussian War
Baden  Bavaria Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt French Empirea German Empired French RepublicbCommanders and leaders William I Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke Crown Prince Friedrich Prince Friedrich Karl Karl F. von Steinmetz Albrecht von Roon Napoleon
Napoleon
III (POW) F. A
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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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Legal Fiction
A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts[1] which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule. The concept is used almost exclusively in common law jurisdictions, and particularly in England. A classic example of a legal fiction is that the English courts (which have no legislative power, but have nevertheless developed the bulk of the common law) do not "create" new law but merely "declare" the common law that has existed since time immemorial.[2]Contents1 Development of the concept 2 Examples2.1 Adoption 2.2 Corporate personhood2.2.1 Enemy character of the corporation 2.2.2 Nationality of corporation 2.2.3 Residence2.3 Doctrine of survival 2.4 Ejectment 2.5 Jurisdiction
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Second Northern War
The Second Northern War
Second Northern War
(1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden
Sweden
and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60). The Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
often intervened against Sweden. In 1655, Charles X Gustav
Charles X Gustav
of Sweden
Sweden
invaded and occupied western Poland–Lithuania, the eastern half of which was already occupied by Russia. The rapid Swedish advance became known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge
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Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia (German: Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701. Based in the Electorate of Brandenburg, the main branch of the Hohenzollern intermarried with the branch ruling the Duchy of Prussia, and secured succession upon the latter's extinction in the male line in 1618. Another consequence of the intermarriage was the incorporation of the lower Rhenish principalities of Cleves, Mark and Ravensberg after the Treaty of Xanten in 1614. The Thirty Years' War (1618–48) was especially devastating. The Elector changed sides three times, and as a result Protestant and Catholic armies swept the land back and forth, killing, burning, seizing men and taking the food supplies. Upwards of half the population was killed or dislocated. Berlin and the other major cities were in ruins, and recovery took decades
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21)
The Polish–Teutonic War of 1519–1521 (German: Reiterkrieg, horsemen's war, Polish: Wojna pruska, Prussian War) was fought between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, ending with an armistice in April 1521. Four years later, under the Treaty of Kraków, part of the Catholic Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights became secularized as the Duchy of Prussia. The reigning Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern-Brandenburg-Ansbach became the first Duke of Prussia by paying the Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
as vassal to his uncle, Polish king Sigismund I the Old.Contents1 Prelude 2 The war 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 ReferencesPrelude[edit]16th-century Polish soldiers, depicted by Jan MatejkoAfter the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was under Polish suzerainty
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Prussian Homage
The Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
or Prussian Tribute (German: Preußische Huldigung; Polish: hołd pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia. In the aftermath of the armistice ending the Polish-Teutonic War Albert, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and a member of the House of Hohenzollern, visited Martin Luther
Martin Luther
at Wittenberg
Wittenberg
and soon thereafter became sympathetic to Protestantism. On April 10, 1525, two days after signing of the Treaty of Kraków
Treaty of Kraków
which officially ended the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21), in the main square of the Polish capital Kraków, Albert resigned his position as Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and received the title "Duke of Prussia" from King Zygmunt I the Old
Zygmunt I the Old
of Poland
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Kingdom Of Poland (1385–1569)
The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
joined in a personal union created by the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
(1385). The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
in 1569, which was shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Poland
Poland
for two centuries. See also[edit]Crown of the Kingdom of Poland Culture of medieval Poland History of Poland
Poland
during the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
(1386–1572)Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Poland
Poland
— Jagiellonian Dynasty (1385–1569).References[edit]^ " Gaude Mater Polonia
Gaude Mater Polonia
Creation and History"
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Albert Frederick, Duke Of Prussia
Albert Frederick (German: Albrecht Friedrich, Polish: Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553, in Königsberg
Königsberg
– 28 August 1618, in Fischhausen, Rybaki) was Duke of Prussia
Duke of Prussia
from 1568 until his death. He was a son of Albert of Prussia
Albert of Prussia
and Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach
Ansbach
branch of the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
family.Contents1 Duke of Prussia 2 Marriage 3 Issue 4 Ancestors 5 ReferencesDuke of Prussia[edit] Albert became Duke of Prussia
Duke of Prussia
after paying feudal homage to his cousin, the King of Poland, Zygmunt August, a descendent of Emperor Sigismund, on July 19, 1569 in Lublin.[1] The homage was described by the Polish chronicler Jan Kochanowski
Jan Kochanowski
in his work Proporzec ("Standard")
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Grand Masters Of The Teutonic Order
The Grand Master (German: Hochmeister; Latin: Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin
Latin
was Magister Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Alemannorum Hierosolymitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum Hierosolymitani ("Master of the Hospital House of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem") was used. The offices of Hochmeister and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525
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