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Khrushchyovka
Khrushchyovka
Khrushchyovka
(Russian: хрущёвка, IPA: [xrʊˈɕːɵfkə]) is an unofficial name of type of low-cost, concrete-paneled or brick three- to five-storied apartment building which was developed in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the early 1960s, during the time its namesake Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
directed the Soviet government. The apartment buildings also went by the name of "Khruschoba" (Хрущёв+трущоба, Khrushchev-slum).Contents1 History 2 Design 3 Present day 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Traditional masonry is labor-intensive; individual projects were slow and not scalable to the needs of overcrowded cities. To ameliorate a severe housing shortage, during 1947–1951 Soviet architects evaluated various technologies attempting to reduce costs and completion time
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Tomsk
Tomsk
Tomsk
(Russian: Томск, IPA: [tomsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk Oblast
in Russia, located on the Tom River. The city's population was 524,669 (2010 Census);[7] 487,838 (2002 Census);[10] 501,963 (1989 Census).[11] Tomsk
Tomsk
is considered one of the oldest towns in Siberia. It celebrated its 410th anniversary in 2014
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Bathroom
A bathroom is a room in the home for personal hygiene activities, generally containing a sink (basin) and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is included in this room, for ease of plumbing, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary, and give that fixture a room of its own. Historically, bathing was often a collective activity, which took place in public baths
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Prefabricated Building
A prefabricated building, informally a prefab, is a building that is manufactured and constructed using prefabrication. It consists of factory-made components or units that are transported and assembled on-site to form the complete building.Contents1 History 2 Prefabs and the modernist movement 3 In communist countries 4 Prefabricated commercial buildings 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]Villa Undine in Binz
Binz
on German Rugia Island, built in 1885 by Wolgaster Holzbau.Prefabricated post-war home at Chiltern Open Air Museum
Chiltern Open Air Museum
- Universal House, Mark 3, steel frame clad with corrugated asbestos cementA 1950s metal UK prefab at the Rural Life Centre, Tilford, Surrey.Buildings have been built in one place and reassembled in another throughout history
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Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Cheboksary
(Russian: Чебоксары, IPA: [tɕɪbɐˈksarɨ]; Chuvash: Шупашкар, Šupaškar) is the capital city of Chuvashia, Russia
Russia
and a port on the Volga River. Population: 453,721 (2010 Census);[8] 440,621 (2002 Census);[14] 419,592 (1989 Census).[15]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Administrative and municipal status3.1 City divisions4 Demographics4.1 Ethnic composition5 Culture5.1 Sport6 Education 7 Economy 8 Transportation 9 Climate 10 Gallery 11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 References12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources13 External linksGeography[edit] The city is located in the Volga Upland
Volga Upland
region and stands on the shore of the Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Reservoir
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Prefabricated Home
Prefabricated homes, often referred to as prefab homes or simply prefabs, are specialist dwelling types of prefabricated building, which are manufactured off-site in advance, usually in standard sections that can be easily shipped and assembled. Some current prefab home designs include architectural details inspired by postmodernism or futurist architecture.Contents1 Word origin 2 Prefabricated housing2.1 Manufactured homes3 History3.1 North America3.1.1 United States3.2 Zoning issues4 Europe4.1 United Kingdom5 Australia
Australia
and Asia 6 The future 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksWord origin[edit]"Loren" Iron House, at Old Gippstown
Old Gippstown
in Moe, AustraliaThe word ‘prefab’ is not an industry term like modular home, manufactured home, panelized home or site-built home. The term is an amalgamation of panelized and modular building systems, and can mean either one
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Hollow-core Slab
A hollow core slab, also known as a voided slab, hollow core plank or simply a concrete plank is a precast slab of prestressed concrete typically used in the construction of floors in multi-story apartment buildings. The slab has been especially popular in countries where the emphasis of home construction has been on precast concrete, including Northern Europe and former socialist countries of Eastern Europe. Precast
Precast
concrete popularity is linked with low-seismic zones and more economical constructions because of fast building assembly, lower self weight (less material), etc. The precast concrete slab has tubular voids extending the full length of the slab, typically with a diameter equal to the 2/3-3/4 of the slab. This makes the slab much lighter than a massive solid concrete floor slab of equal thickness or strength. The reduced weight is important because it lowers the costs of transportation as well as material (concrete) costs
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Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (/ˈbrɛʒnɛf/;[1] Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев, IPA: [lʲɪɐˈnʲid ɪˈlʲjidʑ ˈbrʲeʐnʲɪf] (listen); Ukrainian: Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December 1906) – 10 November 1982)[2] was a Soviet politician. The fifth leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of the Central Committee of the governing Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(CPSU) from 1964 until his death in 1982. Ideologically, he was a Marxist-Leninist. He presided over the Soviet Union's greatest involvement in world affairs, including détente with the West. But he also increasingly confronted the Sino-Soviet split, which divided and weakened communist parties across the world
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Communism In 20 Years
Communism
Communism
in 20 years was a slogan put forth by Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
at the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1961.[1] In his speech, Khrushchev promised that communism will be built "in the main" by 1980.[2] His phrase "The current generation of Soviet people will live under communism" was the final phrase of the new Program of the CPSU adopted at the congress. The latter political slogan is attributed to Kremlin
Kremlin
speechwriter Elizar Kuskov (Елизар Кусков), who allegedly quipped "this slogan will survive centuries". [3][4] References[edit]^ Khrushchev's quote from his speech at the Congress: "Мы руководствуемся строго научными расчетами
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Kazan
Kazan
Kazan
(Russian: Каза́нь, IPA: [kɐˈzanʲ]; Tatar: Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,535, it is the sixth most populous city in Russia.[8] Kazan
Kazan
lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia
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Ivan Vladislavovich Zholtovsky
Own practice, 1898-1932 Mossovet Workshop No.1, 1932-1945 Zholtovsky School and Workshop, 1945-1959 Head of Moscow
Moscow
Architectural Institute, 1940-1948BuildingsKaluzhskaya St. apartments (1950) Mokhovaya St. apartments (1934) Tarasov House (1912)ProjectsNew Moscow
Moscow
master plan (1918-1923), with Alexey Shchusev Palace of Soviets
Palace of Soviets
(1932), one of three winning entriesIvan Vladislavovich Zholtovsky (Russian: Иван Владиславович Жолтовский Belarusian: Іван Уладзіслававіч Жалтоўскі, 1867–1959) was a Russian-Soviet architect and educator. He worked primarily in Moscow from 1898 until his death
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Elevator
An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia,[1][2][3] Ireland,[4][5] New Zealand,[6][7] and South Africa, Nigeria
Nigeria
[8]) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators
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Prefabricated
Prefabrication
Prefabrication
is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from the more conventional construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction site where all assembly is carried out. The WorldCrete Canadian system it is currently the most advanced sustainable building system. The term prefabrication also applies to the manufacturing of things other than structures at a fixed site. It is frequently used when fabrication of a section of a machine or any movable structure is shifted from the main manufacturing site to another location, and the section is supplied assembled and ready to fit
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Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as calcium aluminate cements. However, asphalt concrete, which is frequently used for road surfaces, is also a type of concrete, where the cement material is bitumen, and polymer concretes are sometimes used where the cementing material is a polymer. When aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement
Portland cement
and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape
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Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
(/ˈmɒskoʊ, -kaʊ/; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits[11] and 17.1 million within the urban area.[12] Moscow
Moscow
is recognized as a Russian federal city. Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Masonry
Masonry
Masonry
is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite, travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, and adobe. Masonry
Masonry
is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can substantially affect the durability of the overall masonry construction
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