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Khirbet Qeiyafa
Coordinates: 31°41′47″N 34°57′26″E / 31.69639°N 34.95722°E / 31.69639; 34.95722Khirbet QeiyafaWestern gateKhirbet QeiyafaAlternate name Elah fortressCoordinates 31°41′47″N 34°57′27″E / 31.6963°N 34.9575°E / 31.6963; 34.9575Grid position 146/122 PALHistoryFounded 10th-century BCEPeriods Iron Age, HellenisticSite notesExcavation dates 2007 –Archaeologists Yosef Garfinkel, Saar GanorCondition ruinWebsite Khirbet Qeiyafa
Khirbet Qeiyafa
Archaeological ProjectThis article is about the archaeological site
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Historicity
Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction. Historicity focuses on the true value of knowledge claims about the past (denoting historical actuality, authenticity, and factuality). The historicity of a claim about the past is its factual status.[1][2] Some theoreticians characterize historicity as a dimension of all natural phenomena that take place in space and time
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Victor Guérin
Victor Guérin
Victor Guérin
(15 September 1821 – 21 September 1891) was a French intellectual, explorer and amateur archaeologist. He published books describing the geography, archeology and history of the areas he explored, which included Greece, Asia Minor, North Africa, Syria
Syria
and Palestine.Contents1 Biography 2 Expeditions 3 Works 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] From 1840, Guerin was a professor of rhetoric and member of faculty in various colleges and high schools in France and in Algeria. In 1852, he became a member of the French School of Athens
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Hebrew University
The Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Hebrew: האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים‬, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; Arabic: الجامعة العبرية في القدس‎, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew
Hebrew
University has three campuses in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and one in Rehovot.[2] The world's largest Jewish studies
Jewish studies
library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus. The university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah
Hadassah
Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, and 315 academic departments
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Israel Antiquities Authority
The Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority (IAA, Hebrew: רשות העתיקות‎, translit. rashut ha-'atiqot; Arabic: داﺌرة الآثار‎, before 1990, the Israel
Israel
Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities. The IAA regulates excavation and conservation, and promotes research
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Iron Age II A
Iron Age metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World. The three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, and by the later 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East.[1] As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy (ironworking), more specifically from carbon steel. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration
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Carbon-14
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating method pioneered by Willard Libby
Willard Libby
and colleagues (1949) to date archaeological, geological and hydrogeological samples. Carbon-14
Carbon-14
was discovered on February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben at the University of California Radiation Laboratory
University of California Radiation Laboratory
in Berkeley, California. Its existence had been suggested by Franz Kurie in 1934.[2] There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon on Earth: 99% of the carbon is carbon-12, 1% is carbon-13, and carbon-14 occurs in trace amounts, i.e., making up about 1 or 1.5 atoms per 1012 atoms of the carbon in the atmosphere
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Oxford University
Coordinates: 51°45′40″N 1°15′12″W / 51.7611°N 1.2534°W / 51.7611; -1.2534University of OxfordCoat of armsLatin: Universitas OxoniensisMotto Dominus Illuminatio Mea (Latin)Motto in English"The Lord is my Light"Established c. 1096; 922 years ago (1096)[1]Endowment £5.069 billion (inc
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Hebrew University Of Jerusalem
The Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Hebrew: האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים‬, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; Arabic: الجامعة العبرية في القدس‎, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew
Hebrew
University has three campuses in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and one in Rehovot.[2] The world's largest Jewish studies
Jewish studies
library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus. The university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah
Hadassah
Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, and 315 academic departments
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American Schools Of Oriental Research
The American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), founded in 1900 as the American School of Oriental Study and Research in Palestine, supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present. It is apolitical and has no religious affiliation. Susan Ackerman has been President since 2014.[1][2] ASOR supports three independent overseas institutes:Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem, - former directors of which include Millar Burrows who was instrumental in the first publications of the Dead Sea scrolls. Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute, Nicosia. American Center of Oriental Research, Amman.The overseas institutes support scholars working in the Middle East that focus on Near Eastern Archaeology, Semitic languages, history, and Biblical studies
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University Of Haifa
The University
University
of Haifa
Haifa
(Hebrew: אוניברסיטת חיפה‎, Arabic: جامعة حيفا‎) is a public research university on the top of Mount Carmel
Mount Carmel
in Haifa, Israel. The university was founded in 1963 by the mayor of its host city, Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University
University
of Jerusalem.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences 4 Notable alumni 5 Notable academics 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOverview[edit] The University
University
of Haifa
Haifa
was founded in 1963[1] by Haifa
Haifa
mayor Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Haifa
Haifa
University
University
is located on Mount Carmel
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Adullam
Adullam
Adullam
(Hebrew: עֲדֻלָּם‬) is an ancient ruin, formerly known by the Arabic appellation ʿAīd el Mâ (or `Eîd el Mieh), built upon a hilltop overlooking the Elah Valley, south of Bet Shemesh in Israel. In the late 19th century, the town was still in ruins.[1] The hilltop ruin is also known by the name Khurbet esh-Sheikh Madkour, named after Madkour, one of the sons of the Sultan Beder, for whom is built a shrine (wely) and formerly called by its inhabitants Wely Madkour.[2] The hilltop is mostly flat, with cisterns carved into the rock. The remains of stone structures which once stood there can still be seen. Sedimentary layers of ruins from the old Canaanite and Israelite eras, mostly potsherds, are noticeable everywhere, although olive groves now grow atop of this hill, enclosed within stone hedges. The villages of Aderet, Neve Michael/Roglit, and Aviezer
Aviezer
are located nearby
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Beersheba
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (/bɪərˈʃiːbə/; Hebrew: בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע‬  Be'er Sheva [be.eʁˈʃeva]; Arabic: بئر السبع‎  Bi'ir as-Sab  [biːr esˈsabeʕ]), is the largest city in the Negev
Negev
desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in Israel, the eighth most populous Israeli city with a population of 205,810,[1] and the second largest city with a total area of 117,500 dunams (after Jerusalem). With an ancient history, and long used as a bedouin encampment, the modern history of Beersheva began at the start of the 20th century when a permanent settlement was established by the Ottoman Turks.[2] The Battle of Beersheba
Beersheba
was part of a wider British offensive in World War I aimed at breaking the Turkish defensive line from Gaza to Beersheba
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Tel Arad
Tel Arad
Tel Arad
(Hebrew: תל ערד‬) is an archaeological tel, or mound, located west of the Dead Sea, about 10 kilometres (6 miles) west of the modern Israeli city of Arad in an area surrounded by mountain ridges which is known as the Arad Plain. The site is divided into a lower city and an upper hill which holds the only ever discovered "House of Yahweh" in the land of Israel.[1] Tel Arad
Tel Arad
was excavated during 18 seasons by Ruth Amiran
Ruth Amiran
and Yohanan Aharoni.Contents1 History 2 Sanctuary at Arad 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]Excavations at Tel AradThe lower area was first settled during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period, around 4000 BCE. Excavations at the site have unearthed an extensive Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Canaanite settlement which was in place until approximately 2650 BCE
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Timnah
Timnath or Timnah
Timnah
was a Philistine city in Canaan
Canaan
that is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in Judges 14, as also in connection with Judah and Tamar in Genesis 38:14. Although inconclusive, modern archaeologists identify the ancient site with Tel Batash (Hebrew: תל בטש‎), a tel located in the Sorek Valley, near moshav Tal Shahar, Israel. Earlier historical geographers, such as A. Neubauer, Victor Guérin and Edward Robinson, have identified the site, not with Tel Batash, but with Khirbet Tibneh, a ruin located ca
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