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Kharoṣṭhī
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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ISO 15924
ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one.[1] Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages".[1] Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes.[1] 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags
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N'Ko Alphabet
N'Ko (ߒߞߏ‎) is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages
Manding languages
of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script. The term N'Ko means I say in all Manding languages. The script has a few similarities to the Arabic script, notably its direction (right-to-left) and the letters which are connected at the base. Unlike Arabic, it obligatorily marks both tone and vowels
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Demotic (Egyptian)
Demotic (from Ancient Greek: δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian
Late Egyptian
and preceding Coptic. The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts
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Hieratic
Demotic   → Coptic   → Meroitic Byblos syllabarySister systems Cursive
Cursive
hieroglyphs[dubious – discuss]Direction Right-to-leftISO 15924 Egyh, 060 Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+13000–U+1342F (unified with Egyptian hieroglyphs)This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Hieratic
Hieratic
(English: /haɪərˈrætɪk/; Ancient Greek: ἱερατικά, translit. hieratika, lit. 'priestly') is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt. It developed alongside cursive hieroglyphs,[1] to which it is distinctly related
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Old Turkic Script
The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk
Göktürk
script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks
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Libyco-Berber
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
(Berber pronunciation: [tifinaɣ]; also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵊⵉⵏⵗ or ⵜⵊⵏⵗ) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.[1] A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Unicode Range
The Unicode Consortium
Unicode Consortium
(UC) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) collaborate on the Universal Character Set (UCS). The UCS is an international standard to map characters used in natural language, mathematics, music, and other domains to machine readable values. By creating this mapping, the UCS enables computer software vendors to interoperate and transmit UCS encoded text strings from one to another. Because it is a universal map, it can be used to represent multiple languages at the same time. This avoids the confusion of using multiple legacy character encodings, which can result in the same sequence of codes having multiple meanings and thus be improperly decoded if the wrong one is chosen. UCS has a potential capacity to encode over 1 million characters
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Sogdian Alphabet
Manichaean alphabet Old Turkic alphabet Old Uyghur alphabetTraditional Mongolian alphabetManchu alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Sogd, 141(Sogdian) Sogo, 142(Old Sogdian)This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.The Sogdian alphabet
Sogdian alphabet
was originally used for the Sogdian language, a language in the Iranian family used by the people of Sogdia.[1] The alphabet is derived from Syriac, the descendant script of the Aramaic alphabet
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Old Hungarian Script
The Old Hungarian script (Hungarian: rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language. Today Hungarian is predominantly written using the Latin-based Hungarian alphabet, but the Old Hungarian script is still in use in some communities. The term old refers to the historical priority of the script compared to the Latin-based one.[1] The Old Hungarian script is a child system of the Old Turkic alphabet. The Hungarians
Hungarians
settled the Carpathian Basin in 895. After the establishment of the Christian Hungarian kingdom, the old writing was partly forced out of use and the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
was adopted. However, among some professions (e.g. shepherds used a "rovás-stick" to officially track the number of animals) and in Transylvania, the script has remained in use by the Székely
Székely
Magyars, giving its Hungarian name (székely) rovásírás
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Mandaic Alphabet
The Mandaic alphabet
Mandaic alphabet
is thought to have evolved between the 2nd and 7th century CE from either a cursive form of Aramaic (as did Syriac) or from the Parthian chancery script.[1][2] The exact roots of the script are difficult to determine.[3] It was developed by members of the Mandaean gnostic religion of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to write the Mandaic language for liturgical purposes.[1] Classical Mandaic and its descendant Neo-Mandaic are still in limited use.[1] The script has changed very little over centuries of use.[3][1] The Mandaic name for the script is Abagada or Abaga, after the first letters of the alphabet. Rather than the ancient Semitic names for the letters (alaph, beth, gimal), the letters are known as a, ba, ga and so on.[4] It is written from right to left in horizontal lines. It is a cursive script, but not all letters connect within a word
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Old Uyghur Alphabet
The Old Uyghur alphabet
Old Uyghur alphabet
was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu that is an ancestor of the modern Yugur language. The term "Old Uyghur" used for this alphabet is misleading because the Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho
used the Old Turkic alphabet and only adopted this script used by the local inhabitants when they migrated into Turfan after 840.[1] It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
used for texts with Buddhist, Manichaean and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan. The last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Mongolian and Manchu alphabets. The Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga.Like the Sogdian alphabet, the Old Uyghur tended to use matres lectionis for the long vowels as well as for the short ones
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Mongolian Script
The classical or traditional Mongolian script
Mongolian script
(in Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet,[1] Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script
Mongolian script
has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu
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Greek Alphabet
The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC.[3][4] It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[6] Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega
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