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Khanate Of Kokand
The KHANATE OF KOKAND (Uzbek : Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Kyrgyz : Кокон хандыгы, Qoqon xandığı/Kokon handygy, قوقون حاندىعى; Persian : خانات خوقند‎‎, Xānigari-i Xuqand / Xānāt-i Xuqand) was a Central Asian
Central Asian
state that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, eastern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, and southeastern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. The name of the city and the khanate may also be spelled as KHOQAND in modern scholarly literature
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Charles Stoddart
Colonel CHARLES STODDART (23 July 1806 in Ipswich
Ipswich
– June 1842 in Bukhara
Bukhara
) was a British officer and diplomat . He was a famous British agent in Central Asia during the period of the Great Game . Stoddart, the son of Major Stephen Stoddart (1763–1812), was educated at Norwich School and later commissioned into the Royal Staff Corps from Royal Military College, Sandhurst
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
, in 1823. Dispatched on a mission to persuade the Emir
Emir
of Bukhara
Bukhara
to free Russian slaves and sign a treaty of friendship with Britain, he was first arrested by the Emir
Emir
Nasrullah Khan in 1838. In November 1841 Captain Arthur Conolly arrived in Bukhara
Bukhara
with part of his remit to attempt to secure Stoddart's release. He was unsuccessful
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Emir
An EMIR (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: أمير‎‎ ʾAmīr ), sometimes transliterated AMIR, AMIER, or AMEER, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is EMIRA (أميرة ʾAmīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate " is analogous to a sovereign principality . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles * 3 Military ranks and titles * 4 Other uses * 5 Emirs in fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes ORIGINS Emir
Emir
Dost Mohammad Khan , the first Emir
Emir
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, whose reign started in 1826, with his youngest son Emir
Emir
Sher Ali Khan
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Hui People
China
China
; Elsewhere: Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Kazakhstan
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Bukhara
BUKHARA (Uzbek : Buxoro; Tajik : Бухоро; Persian : بخارا‎‎), is one of the cities (viloyat ) of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. Bukhara
Bukhara
is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments. The nation's fifth-largest city, it had a population as of 31 August 2016 of approximately 247,644. Humans have inhabited the region around Bukhara
Bukhara
for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time. The mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara
Bukhara
is Tajik . Located on the Silk Road
Silk Road
, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. UNESCO
UNESCO
has listed the historic center of Bukhara
Bukhara
(which contains numerous mosques and madrassas ) as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (Russian : Россійская Имперія) was an empire that existed from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War , until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south
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Tājik People
TAJIK (Dari : تاجيک: Tājīk, Tajik : Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin , with traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
. As a self-designation, the term Tajik, which earlier on had been more or less pejorative, has become acceptable only during the last several decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia. Alternative names for the Tajiks
Tajiks
are FāRSī (Persian), FāRSīWāN (Persian-speaker), and DīHGāN (cf. Tajik : Деҳқон, Dehqon , literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and also described as a class of land-owning magnates during the Sassanid and early Islamic period). Not all Tajiks
Tajiks
speak a variety of modern Persian
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Khujand
KHUJAND (Tajik : Хуҷанд, Xujand/Xuçand, Persian : Xojand خجند‌‎‎), formerly KHODJEND or KHODZHENT until 1936 and LENINABAD (Tajik : Ленинобод, Leninobod/Leninoвod, Persian : Leninâbâd لنین‌آباد‌‎‎) until 1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd . Khujand
Khujand
is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia, dating back about 2,500 years. It is situated on the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
at the mouth of the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
and was a major city along the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road

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Arthur Conolly
ARTHUR CONOLLY (2 July 1807, London – 17 June 1842, Bukhara
Bukhara
) (sometimes misspelled CONNOLLY) was a British intelligence officer, explorer and writer. He was a captain of the 6th Bengal Light Cavalry in the service of the British East India Company
British East India Company
. He participated in many reconnaissance missions into Central Asia and coined the term The Great Game to describe the struggle between the British Empire
British Empire
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
for domination over Central Asia. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 References * 3.1 Notes * 3.2 Bibliography BIOGRAPHYConolly was a descendant of an Ó Conghalaigh clan of Ireland. He was a cousin of Sir William Macnaghten , Secretary of the Company's Political and Secret Department
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Tarim Basin
Coordinates : 39°N 83°E / 39°N 83°E / 39; 83 Tarim Basin Dzungaria
Dzungaria
Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
CHINESE NAME CHINESE 塔里木盆地 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Tǎlǐmù Péndì WADE–GILES T'a3-li3-mu4 P'en2-ti4 IPA NANJIANG CHINESE 南疆 LITERAL MEANING Southern Xinjiang TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Nánjiāng WADE–GILES Nan2-chiang1 IPA UYGHUR NAME UYGHUR تارىم ئويمانلىقى TRANSCRIPTIONS LATIN YëZIQI Tarim Oymanliqi YENGI YEZIⱪ Tarim Oymanliⱪi SIRIL YëZIQI Тарим ойманлиқиThe TARIM BASIN is an endorheic basin in northwest China
China
occupying an area of about 1,020,000 km2 (390,000 sq mi)
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Vassal State
A VASSAL STATE is any state that is subordinate to another. The vassal in these cases is the ruler, rather than the state itself. Being a vassal most commonly implies providing military assistance to the dominant state when requested to do so; it sometimes implies paying tribute , but a state which does so is better described as a tributary state . In simpler terms the vassal state would have to provide military power to the dominant state. Today, more common terms are puppet state , protectorate or associated state
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west; China
China
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
Maldives

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Pamirs
The PAMIR MOUNTAINS, or the PAMIRS, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas
Himalayas
with the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
, Karakoram
Karakoram
, Kunlun , Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains . The precise extent of the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
is subject to debate. They lie mostly in the Gorno-Badakhshan province of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
. To the north they join the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains along the Alay Valley of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. To the south they border the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains along Afghanistan
Afghanistan
's Wakhan Corridor
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Afghanistan
Coordinates : 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan * د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت ( Pashto
Pashto
) * Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat * جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (Dari ) * Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no god but God; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God
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Fergana Province
FERGANA REGION (Uzbek : Farg‘ona viloyati, Russian : Ферганская область) is one of the regions of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, located in the southern part of the Fergana Valley in the far east of the country. It borders the Namangan and Andijan Regions of Uzbekistan, as well as Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
. It covers an area of 6,800 km2. The population is estimated to be around 2,597,000, with over 71% of the population living in rural areas. DISTRICTS Fergana Region is divided into 15 administrative districts. The capital is the city of Fergana
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Alexander II Of Russia
ALEXANDER II (Russian : Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич, tr. Aleksandr II Nikolayevich; IPA: ; 29 April 1818 in Moscow
Moscow
– 13 March 1881 in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
) was the Emperor
Emperor
of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland . Alexander's most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russia\'s serfs in 1861, for which he is known as ALEXANDER THE LIBERATOR (Russian : Алекса́ндр Освободи́тель, tr. Aleksandr Osvoboditel; IPA: ). The tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganizing the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing corporal punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some privileges of the nobility, and promoting university education
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