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Kepler-1520b
Kepler-1520b
Kepler-1520b
(initially published as KIC 12557548 b[2]), is a confirmed exoplanet orbiting the K-type main sequence star Kepler-1520. It is located about 2,074 light-years (636 parsecs, or nearly 7016196250000000000♠1.9625×1016 km) away from Earth
Earth
in the constellation of Cygnus. The exoplanet was found by using the transit method, in which the dimming effect that a planet causes as it crosses in front of its star is measured. The planet was previously proposed in 2012 when reports of its host star recorded drops in its luminosity varying from 0.2% to 1.3%, which indicated a possible planetary companion rapidly disintegrating. In 2016, the planetary nature of the cause of the dips was finally verified
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Exoplanet
An exoplanet (UK: /ˈɛk.soʊˌplæn.ɪt/, US: /ˌɛk.soʊˈplæn.ɪt/)[4] or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system that orbits a star. The first evidence of an exoplanet was noted as early as 1917, but was not recognized as such.[5] However, the first scientific detection of an exoplanet was in 1988. Shortly afterwards, the first confirmed detection was in 1992. As of 1 April 2018, there are 3,758 confirmed planets in 2,808 systems, with 627 systems having more than one planet.[6] The High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet
Planet
Searcher (HARPS, since 2004) has discovered about a hundred exoplanets while the Kepler space telescope (since 2009) has found more than two thousand
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Km
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; /ˈkɪləmiːtər/ or /kɪˈlɒmɪtər/) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix
SI prefix
for 7003100000000000000♠1000)
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Astronomical Unit
The astronomical unit (symbol: au,[1][2][3] ua,[4] or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth
Earth
to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth
Earth
orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 7011149597870700000♠149597870700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012.[5] The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System
Solar System
or around other stars
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Orbital Period
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars. For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred to as the sidereal period, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth
Earth
orbiting the Sun. The name sidereal is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky. When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the period
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Day
A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun
Sun
(solar day).[1][2] In 1960, the second was redefined in terms of the orbital motion of the Earth in year 1900, and was designated the SI base unit of time. The unit of measurement "day", was redefined as 86 400 SI seconds and symbolized d. In 1967, the second and so the day were redefined by atomic electron transition.[3] A civil day is usually 86 400 seconds, plus or minus a possible leap second in Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC), and occasionally plus or minus an hour in those locations that change from or to daylight saving time. In common usage, it is either an interval equal to 24 hours[4] or daytime, the consecutive period of time during which the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon
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Orbital Inclination
Orbital inclination
Orbital inclination
measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth
Earth
directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case for a circular orbit is that it is tilted, spending half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern
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Kepler (spacecraft)
Discovery program← Dawn GRAIL →Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA
NASA
to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.[5][6] Named after astronomer Johannes Kepler,[7] the spacecraft was launched on March 7, 2009,[8] into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit. The principal investigator was William J
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Methods Of Detecting Exoplanets
Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star. For example, a star like the Sun
Sun
is about a billion times as bright as the reflected light from any of the planets orbiting it. In addition to the intrinsic difficulty of detecting such a faint light source, the light from the parent star causes a glare that washes it out. For those reasons, very few of the extrasolar planets reported as of April 2014[update] have been observed directly, with even fewer being resolved from their host star. Instead, astronomers have generally had to resort to indirect methods to detect extrasolar planets
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Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia
The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia[1][2][3][4][5] is an astronomy website, founded in Paris, France
France
at the Meudon Observatory
Meudon Observatory
by Jean Schneider in February 1995,[6][7] which maintains a database of all the currently known and candidate extrasolar planets, with individual pages for each planet and a full list interactive catalog spreadsheet. The main catalogue comprises databases of all of the currently confirmed extrasolar planets as well as a database of unconfirmed planet detections
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SIMBAD
SIMBAD
SIMBAD
(the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) is an astronomical database of objects beyond the Solar System. It is maintained by the Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS), France. SIMBAD
SIMBAD
was created by merging the Catalog of Stellar Identifications (CSI) and the Bibliographic Star Index as they existed at the Meudon Computer Centre until 1979, and then expanded by additional source data from other catalogues and the academic literature. The first on-line interactive version, known as Version 2, was made available in 1981. Version 3, developed in the C language and running on UNIX stations at the Strasbourg Observatory, was released in 1990
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NASA Exoplanet Archive
An exoplanet (UK: /ˈɛk.soʊˌplæn.ɪt/, US: /ˌɛk.soʊˈplæn.ɪt/)[4] or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system that orbits a star. The first evidence of an exoplanet was noted as early as 1917, but was not recognized as such.[5] However, the first scientific detection of an exoplanet was in 1988. Shortly afterwards, the first confirmed detection was in 1992. As of 1 April 2018, there are 3,758 confirmed planets in 2,808 systems, with 627 systems having more than one planet.[6] The High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet
Planet
Searcher (HARPS, since 2004) has discovered about a hundred exoplanets while the Kepler space telescope (since 2009) has found more than two thousand
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K-type Main Sequence Star
A K-type main-sequence star (K V), also referred to as an orange dwarf or K dwarf, is a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type K and luminosity class V. These stars are intermediate in size between red M-type main-sequence stars ("red dwarfs") and yellow G-type main-sequence stars. They have masses between 0.45 and 0.8 times the mass of the Sun[1] and surface temperatures between 3,900 and 5,200 K.[2], Tables VII, VIII. Better known examples include Alpha Centauri B (K1 V) and Epsilon Indi.[3] These stars are of particular interest in the search for extraterrestrial life[4] because they are stable on the main sequence for a very long time (15 to 30 billion years, compared to 10 billion for the Sun). Like M-type stars, they tend to have a very small mass, leading to their extremely long lifespan that offers plenty of time for life to develop on orbiting Earth-like, terrestrial planets
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Transit Method
Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star. For example, a star like the Sun
Sun
is about a billion times as bright as the reflected light from any of the planets orbiting it. In addition to the intrinsic difficulty of detecting such a faint light source, the light from the parent star causes a glare that washes it out. For those reasons, very few of the extrasolar planets reported as of April 2014[update] have been observed directly, with even fewer being resolved from their host star. Instead, astronomers have generally had to resort to indirect methods to detect extrasolar planets
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Orbital Elements
Orbital elements
Orbital elements
are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit. In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems, where a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is used. There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics. A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity
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Secondary Eclipse
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer. The term is often used in astronomy, but can also refer to any situation in which an object in the foreground blocks from view (occults) an object in the background
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