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Keep
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but usually consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the castle fall to an adversary. The first keeps were made of timber and formed a key part of the Motte-and-Bailey castles that emerged in Normandy
Normandy
and Anjou
Anjou
during the 10th century; the design spread to England
England
as a result of the Norman invasion of 1066, and in turn spread into Wales during the second half of the 11th century and into Ireland
Ireland
in the 1170s
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Buttress
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.[1] Buttresses are fairly common on more ancient buildings, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral (sideways) forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate bracing. The term counterfort can be synonymous with buttress,[2] and is often used when referring to dams, retaining walls and other structures holding back earth. Early examples of buttresses are found on the Eanna
Eanna
Temple (ancient Uruk), dating to as early as the 4th millennium BCE.[citation needed]Contents1 Terminology 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTerminology[edit] In addition to flying and ordinary buttresses, brick and masonry buttresses that support wall corners can be classified according to their ground plan
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Calais
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Calais
Calais
(UK: /ˈkæleɪ/, US: /kæˈleɪ/, traditionally /ˈkælɪs/; French: [kalɛ]; Picard: Calés; Dutch: Kales) is a town and major ferry port in northern France
France
in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais
Calais
is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras
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Guînes
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Guînes is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. Historically it was spelt Guisnes.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Population 4 Places and monuments4.1 Blanchard's Column5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] Guînes is located on the border of the two territories of the Boulonnais and Calaisis, at the edge of the now-drained marshes, which extend from here to the coast. The Guînes canal connects with Calais. History[edit] Historically, Guînes was the capital of a small county of the same name. After the Romans left, in the 5th century, there is little known about the town
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Homage (feudal)
Homage in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture). It was a symbolic acknowledgement to the lord that the vassal was, literally, his man (homme). The oath known as "fealty" implied lesser obligations than did "homage". Further, one could swear "fealty" to many different overlords with respect to different land holdings, but "homage" could only be performed to a single liege, as one could not be "his man" (i.e., committed to military service) to more than one "liege lord"
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Les Rues-des-Vignes
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Les Rues-des-Vignes (called Vinchy in the Middle Ages) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Vinchy was the site of a famous battle of the then-rising Charles Martel in spring 717. See also[edit]Communes of the Nord departmentReferences[edit]INSEE commune fileWikimedia Commons has media related to Les Rues-des-Vignes.v t eCommunes of the Nord department Abancourt Abscon Aibes Aix Allennes-les-Marais Amfroipret Anhiers Aniche Anneux Annœullin Anor Anstaing Anzin Arleux Armbouts-Cappel Armentières Arnèke Artres Assevent Attiches Aubencheul-au-Bac Auberchicourt Aubers Aubigny-au-Bac Aubry-du-Hainaut Auby Auchy-lez-Orchies Audignies Aulnoye-Aymeries A
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Fulk III, Count Of Anjou
Fulk III, the Black (970–1040; Old French: Foulque Nerra) was an early Count of Anjou
Count of Anjou
celebrated as one of the first great builders of medieval castles. He constructed an estimated 100 of them, along with abbeys, across the Loire Valley
Loire Valley
in what is now France. He fought successive wars with neighbors in Brittany, Blois, Poitou
Poitou
and Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and traveled four times to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on pilgrimage during the course of his life. He had two wives and three children. Fulk was a natural horseman and a fearsome warrior, with a keen sense of military strategy that saw him get the better of most of his opponents. He was allied with the goals and aims of the Capetians against the dissipated Carolingians
Carolingians
of his era
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Geoffrey II, Count Of Anjou
Geoffrey II, called Martel ("the Hammer"), was Count of Anjou
Count of Anjou
from 1040 to 1060. He was the son of Fulk the Black. He was bellicose and fought against William VII, Duke of Aquitaine, Theobald I, Count of Blois, and William, Duke of Normandy. During his twenty-year reign he especially had to face the ambitions of the Bishop of Le Mans, Gervais de Château-du-Loir, but he was able to maintain his authority over the County of Maine. Even before the death of his father in 1040, he had extended his power up to the Saintonge, where he founded the Abbey aux Dames. The first mention of Geoffrey in the Gesta Normannorum Ducum reads: "Geoffrey, count of the Angevins, nicknamed Martel, a treacherous man in every respect, frequently inflicted assaults and intolerable pressure on his neighbors."[1] "In alliance with King Henry I of France, Count Geoffrey laid siege to Tours
Tours
in the winter of 1042–3
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Saint-Sylvain-d'Anjou
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Eglise de Saint-Sylvain d'AnjouSaint-Sylvain-d'Anjou is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Verrières-en-Anjou.[1] See also[edit]Communes of the Maine-et-Loire departmentReferences[edit]INSEE commune file^ Arrêté préfectoral 1 December 2015Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint-Sylvain-d'Anjou.This Maine-et-Loire geographical article is a stub
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Hide (skin)
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use. The word "hide" is related to the German word "Haut" which means skin. Common commercial hides include leather from cattle and other livestock animals, buckskin, alligator skin and snake skin. All are used for shoes, clothes and other fashion accessories. Leather
Leather
is also used in upholstery, interior decorating, horse tack and harnesses. Such skins are sometimes still gathered from hunting and processed at a domestic or artisanal level but most leather making is now industrialized and large-scale
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Durham Castle
Durham Castle
Castle
is a Norman castle in the city of Durham, England, which has been wholly occupied since 1840 by University College, Durham. It is open to the general public to visit, but only through guided tours, since it is in use as a working building and is home to over 100 students. The castle stands on top of a hill above the River Wear
River Wear
on Durham's peninsula, opposite Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
(grid reference NZ274423).Contents1 History 2 University College 3 Chapels 4 World Heritage Site 5 See also 6 External linksHistory[edit] The castle was originally built in the 11th century as a projection of the Norman kings' power in the north of England, as the population of England
England
in the north remained "wild and fickle" following the disruption of the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
in 1066
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Valladolid
Valladolid
Valladolid
(/ˌvælədəˈliːd, -ˈlɪd, bɑːjədəˈliːd/; Spanish: [baʎaðoˈlið] ( listen)) is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people (2013 est.),[2] making it Spain's 13th most populous municipality and northwestern Spain's biggest city. Its metropolitan area ranks 20th in Spain
Spain
with a population of 414,244 people in 23 municipalities. The city is situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers 15 km before they join the Duero, and located within five winegrowing regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda, Toro, Tierra de León, and Cigales. Valladolid
Valladolid
was originally settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei
Vaccaei
people, and later the Romans themselves
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Ardres
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Ardres
Ardres
is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
department in northern France.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Population 4 Sights 5 Personalities 6 See also 7 ReferencesGeography[edit] Ardres
Ardres
is located 10.1 mi by rail (station is at Pont-d'Ardres, a few km from Ardres) S.S.E. of Calais, with which it is also connected by a canal (with limited turning space)
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Bell Tower
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular bell towers, often part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built specifically to house a carillon. Church bell
Church bell
towers often incorporate clocks, and secular towers usually do, as a public service. The Italian term campanile (/ˌkæmpəˈniːliː/; Italian pronunciation: [kampaˈniːle]), deriving from the word campana meaning "bell", is synonymous with bell tower; though in English usage Campanile tends to be used to refer to a free standing bell tower
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