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Kavala
Kavala
Kavala
(Greek: Καβάλα [kaˈvala]) is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit. It is situated on the Bay of Kavala, across from the island of Thasos and on the Egnatia motorway, a one-and-a-half-hour drive to Thessaloniki
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Frankokratia
The Frankokratia
Frankokratia
(Greek: Φραγκοκρατία, Frankokratía, lit. Anglicized as "Francocracy", "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Greek: Λατινοκρατία, Latinokratía, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetocracy (Greek: Βενετοκρατία, Venetokratía or Ενετοκρατία, Enetokratia), was the period in Greek history
Greek history
after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae). The term derives from the fact that the Orthodox Greeks called the Western European Catholics "Latins", most of whom were of French ("Franks") or Venetian origin
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Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League
Delian League
led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta
Sparta
launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC
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Second Athenian Empire
The Second Athenian Empire or Confederacy was a maritime confederation of Aegean city-states from 378–355 BC and headed by Athens, primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta
Sparta
and secondly, the Persian Empire.Contents1 Origins 2 Rise of Thebes 3 Later history 4 References 5 Works cited 6 Further readingOrigins[edit] The formation of the confederacy was stimulated by the invasion of Attica by Sphodrias of Sparta
Sparta
and Sparta's refusal to prosecute him for his actions.[1] It was extremely popular at first, with a number of states previously controlled by Sparta
Sparta
signing up as members due to Sparta's increasing imperialism over the Decree of Aristoteles. An inscribed "prospectus" for the league was found at Athens (Inscriptions Grecques 2, 43, also known as the Aristoteles decree) dating to 377 BC, detailing the aims of the new league
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Civitas
In the history of Rome, the Latin
Latin
term civitas (plural civitates,Latin pronunciation: [kɪwɪtaːs] ), according to Cicero
Cicero
in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati). It is the law that binds them together, giving them responsibilities (munera) on the one hand and rights of citizenship on the other. The agreement (concilium) has a life of its own, creating a res publica or "public entity" (synonymous with civitas), into which individuals are born or accepted, and from which they die or are ejected. The civitas is not just the collective body of all the citizens, it is the contract binding them all together, because each of them is a civis.[1] Civitas
Civitas
is an abstract formed from civis
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Marcus Junius Brutus
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (/ˈbruːtəs/; 85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. After being adopted by his uncle he used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, but eventually returned to using his original name.[1] He took a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar.[1] Brutus was close to General Julius Caesar, the leader of the Populis faction. However, Caesar's attempts to assume greater power for himself put him at greater odds with the Roman elite and members of the Senate. Brutus eventually came to oppose Caesar and fought on the side of the Optimate faction, led by Pompey
Pompey
the Great, against Caesar's forces in Caesar's Civil War
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Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus
(Classical Latin: [ˈgaː.i.ʊs ˈkas.si.ʊs ˈlɔŋ.gɪ.nʊs]; October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar,[1][2][3] and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus. He commanded troops with Brutus during the Battle of Philippi against the combined forces of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Octavian, Caesar's former supporters, and committed suicide after being defeated by Mark Antony. Cassius was elected as a Tribune of the Plebs
Tribune of the Plebs
in 49 BC. He opposed Caesar, and he commanded a fleet against him during Caesar's Civil War: after Caesar defeated Pompey
Pompey
in the Battle of Pharsalus, Caesar overtook Cassius and forced him to surrender
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Battle Of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi
Philippi
was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Caius Cassius Longinus
Caius Cassius Longinus
in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia. The Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
declared this civil war ostensibly to avenge Julius Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, but the underlying cause was a long-brewing conflict between the so-called Optimates and the so-called Populares. The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi. The first occurred in the first week of October; Brutus faced Octavian, while Antony's forces fought those of Cassius. At first, Brutus pushed back Octavian and entered his legions' camp
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Byzantine Greece
The history of Byzantine Greece
Greece
mainly coincides with the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.Contents1 Roman Greece 2 Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire 3 Further invasions and reorganization 4 Bulgarian threat 5 Normans
Normans
and Franks 6 Ottoman threat and conquest 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 BibliographyRoman Greece[edit] Main article: Roman GreeceArch of Galerius
Galerius
and Rotunda, Thessaloniki.The Greek peninsula became a Roman protectorate in 146 BC, and the Aegean islands
Aegean islands
were added to this territory in 133 BC. Athens
Athens
and other Greek cities revolted in 88 BC, and the peninsula was crushed by the Roman general Sulla
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later emperors as the model ruler
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Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‬, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition"[1][2]) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism
Judaism
is called a Mekubbal (מְקוּבָּל‬). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it,[3] from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian, New Age, and Occultist/western esoteric syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof
Ein Sof
(infinity)[4] and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation
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Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Macedonia (theme)
The Theme of Macedonia (Greek: θέμα Μακεδονίας) was a military-civilian province (theme) of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
established between the late 8th century and the early 9th century. Byzantine Macedonia also incorporated the region of Thrace. Its capital was Adrianople.Contents1 History 2 Geography and administration 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] From the beginning of the 6th century, the former Roman Diocese of Macedonia, then part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
became a subject to frequent raids by Slavic tribes which, in the course of next centuries, resulted in drastic demographic and cultural changes. The Slavs organized themselves into "Sklaviniai", that continued to assault the Byzantine Empire, either independently, or aided by Bulgars
Bulgars
or Avars during the 7th century
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