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Kauri Gum
Kauri gum
Kauri gum
is a fossilised resin detracted from kauri trees (Agathis australis), which is made into crafts such as jewellery. Kauri forests once covered much of the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand, before Māori and European settlers caused deforestation, causing several areas to revert to sand dunes, scrubs, and swamps. Even afterward, ancient kauri fields continued to provide a source for the gum and the remaining forests.[1][2] Kauri gum
Kauri gum
formed when resin from kauri trees leaked out through fractures or cracks in the bark, hardening with the exposure to air. Lumps commonly fell to the ground and became covered with soil and forest litter, eventually fossilising
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Northland Temperate Kauri Forest
The Northland temperate kauri forests ecoregion, within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, is in northern New Zealand.Contents1 Location and description 2 Flora 3 Fauna 4 Threats and preservation 5 ReferencesLocation and description[edit] This ecoregion covers the northern end of North Island. The landscape is flat when compared with most of New Zealand and includes the regions of Northland, Auckland around the city of Auckland and Waikato around the town of Hamilton. Kauri trees are found north of 38°S. The region also includes a number of offshore islands and some of New Zealand's few remaining original wetland habitats such as the Firth of Thames, and the Kopuatai Peat Dome and the Whangamarino swamp in the Hauraki Plains. The climate is warm and humid. Flora[edit] This area is home to a number of endemic plants especially in regions of Northland such as Cape Reinga and Te Paki which have at times been cut off from the rest of the island by high sea levels
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Carbon-dating
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14C), a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists. Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire 14C by eating the plants. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14C it contains begins to decrease as the 14C undergoes radioactive decay
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Waipoua Forest
Waipoua
Waipoua
Forest preserves some of the best examples of kauri forest remaining in New Zealand. It is notable for having two of the largest living kauri trees, Tane Mahuta
Tane Mahuta
and Te Matua Ngahere. The forest was declared a sanctuary in 1952. A community based volunteer organisation, the Waipoua
Waipoua
Forest Trust, helps maintain the forest.Contents1 Location 2 Ecology 3 History 4 Climate 5 Waipoua
Waipoua
Forest Trust5.1 Property 5.2 Activities6 References6.1 Bibliography7 External linksLocation[edit] The forest, on the west coast of the Northland Region, is associated[by whom?] with the neighbouring Waima and Mataraua Forests. The forest sanctuary is bordered to the south by the 350 hectares (860 acres) Professor W.R McGregor Reserve, named after W. R
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Northland Region
Ngāi Takoto, Ngā Puhi, Ngāti Whātua, Ngāti Kahu, Ngāti Kurī, Ngāti Wai, Te Aupōuri, Te Rarawa Te RoroaWebsite: http://www.nrc.govt.nzCities and townsCities: WhangareiTowns: Kaitaia, Kaeo, Kawakawa, Moerewa, Kaikohe, Ohaeawai, Okaihau, Kerikeri, Russell, Paihia, Waitangi, Mangonui, Taipa, Opononi, Omapere, Rawene, Kohukohu, Ruakaka, Waipu, Kaiwaka, Mangawhai, Dargaville, Ruawai, Maungaturoto, Paparoa, HikurangiConstituent territorial authoritiesNames: Far North District, Kaipara District, Whangarei DistrictA map showing population density in the Northland Region at the 2006 censusThe Northland Region[2] (Māori: Te Tai Tokerau) is the northernmost of New Zealand's 16 local government regions. New Zealanders often call it the Far North, or, because of its mild climate, the Winterless North
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Coromandel Peninsula
The Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula
on the North Island
North Island
of New Zealand extends 85 kilometres north from the western end of the Bay of Plenty, forming a natural barrier to protect the Hauraki Gulf
Hauraki Gulf
and the Firth of Thames in the west from the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the east. It is 40 kilometres wide at its broadest point. Almost the entire population lies on the narrow coastal strips fronting the Hauraki Gulf and the Bay of Plenty. In fine weather the peninsula is clearly visible from Auckland, the country's biggest city, which lies on the far shore of the Hauraki Gulf, 55 kilometres to the west
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Auckland Region
Coordinates: 36°54′S 174°47′E / 36.900°S 174.783°E / -36.900; 174.783 Auckland
Auckland
RegionCountry  New ZealandRegional councilName: Auckland
Auckland
CouncilMayor: Phil GoffPopulation: 1,657,200 June 2017[1]Land area: 4,894 km2 (1,890 sq mi)[2]Website: AucklandCouncil.govt.nzCities and townsThe Auckland
Auckland
Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area. The region encompasses the Auckland
Auckland
metropolitan area, smaller towns, rural areas, and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf
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James Cook
Captain James Cook
James Cook
FRS (7 November 1728[NB 1] – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia
Australia
and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty
Admiralty
and Royal Society
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Mercury Bay
Mercury Bay
Mercury Bay
is a large V-shaped bay on the eastern coast of the Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula
on the North Island of New Zealand. This bay was named by the English navigator Captain James Cook
Captain James Cook
during his exploratory expeditions. By the Māori it was named Te-Whanganui-o-Hei, the great bay of Hei. On 9 November 1769, Cook landed on the shores of this bay to observe a Transit of Mercury. In 1919, an area of land around Shakespeare Cliff was set aside, and a small memorial was constructed, based on the erroneous notion that it was the location of Cook's observations.[1] But the actual site of Cook's landing and observation was the eastern end of Cook's Beach, near the Purangi estuary.[2] A smaller memorial plinth was established there also. The mouth of Mercury Bay
Mercury Bay
is ten kilometres across, and its coastline extends some 20 km
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Mangrove
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories.[1] Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action
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Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 6999453592370000000♠0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces.[1] The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb;[2] an alternative symbol is lbm[3] (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔[4] or ″̶[5] (specifically for the apothecaries' pound). The unit is descended from the Roman libra (hence the abbreviation "lb"). The English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, and Swedish pund
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Whare
A wharenui ([ˈfaɾɛnʉ.i] literally "big house") is a communal house of the Māori people
Māori people
of New Zealand, generally situated as the focal point of a marae. Wharenui
Wharenui
are usually called meeting houses in New Zealand English, or simply called whare (a more generic term simply referring to a house or building). Also called a whare rūnanga ("meeting house") or whare whakairo (literally "carved house"), the present style of wharenui originated in the early to middle nineteenth century. The houses are often carved inside and out with stylized images of the iwi's (or tribe's) ancestors, with the style used for the carvings varying from tribe to tribe. Modern meeting houses are built to regular building standards. Photographs of recent ancestors may be used as well as carvings. The houses always have names, sometimes the name of a famous ancestor or sometimes a figure from Māori mythology
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