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Karl Polanyi
Karl Paul Polanyi (Hungarian: Polányi Károly [ˈpolaːɲi ˈkaːroj]; October 25, 1886 – April 23, 1964)[1] was an Austro-Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, economic sociologist, political economist, historical sociologist and social philosopher. He is known for his opposition to traditional economic thought and for his book, The Great Transformation, which argued that the emergence of market-based societies in modern Europe was not inevitable but historically contingent. Polanyi is remembered today as the originator of substantivism, a cultural approach to economics, which emphasized the way economies are embedded in society and culture
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Personal Name
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy. In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan
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Robert Owen
Robert Owen
Robert Owen
(/ˈoʊən/; 14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. Owen is best known for his efforts to improve the working conditions of his factory workers and his promotion of experimental socialistic communities. In the early 1800s Owen became wealthy as an investor and eventual manager of a large textile mill at New Lanark, Scotland. (He initially trained as a draper in Stamford, Lincolnshire, and worked in London, England, before relocating to Manchester
Manchester
in the 1780s and going into business as a textile manufacturer.) In 1824 Owen travelled to America, where he invested the bulk of his fortune in an experimental socialistic community at New Harmony, Indiana, the preliminary model for Owen's utopian society. The experiment was short-lived, lasting about two years
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Carl Menger
Carl Menger
Carl Menger
(/ˈmɛŋɡər/; German: [ˈmɛŋɐ]; February 23, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was an Austrian economist and the founder of the Austrian School
Austrian School
of economics. Menger contributed to the development of the theory of marginalism (marginal utility),[1] which rejected the cost-of-production theories of value, such as were developed by the classical economists such as Adam Smith
Adam Smith
and David Ricardo. Menger used his “Subjective Theory of Value” to arrive at what he considered one of the most powerful insights in economics: both sides gain from exchange.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Economics 3 Works 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Menger was born in the city of Neu-Sandez in Galicia, Austrian Empire, which is now Nowy Sącz
Nowy Sącz
in Poland
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Debt
Debt
Debt
is money owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor. The borrower may be a sovereign state or country, local government, company, or an individual. The lender may be a bank, credit card company, payday loan provider, business, or an individual. Debt
Debt
is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest.[1] A simple way to understand interest is to see it as the "rent" a person owes on money that they have borrowed, to the bank from which they borrowed the money. Loans, bonds, notes, and mortgages are all types of debt
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Anthropological Theories Of Value
Anthropological theories of value attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists. They are often broader in scope than the theories of value of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, etc. usually including sociological, political, institutional, and historical perspectives (transdisciplinarity). Some have influenced feminist economics. The basic premise is that economic activities can only be fully understood in the context of the society that creates them. The concept of "value" is a social construct, and as such is defined by the culture using the concept. Yet we can gain some insights into modern patterns of exchange, value, and wealth by examining previous societies. An anthropological approach to economic processes allows us to critically examine the cultural biases inherent in the principles of modern economics
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Ferdinand Tönnies
Ferdinand Tönnies
Ferdinand Tönnies
(German: [ˈtœniːs]; 26 July 1855 – 9 April 1936) was a German sociologist and philosopher. He was a major contributor to sociological theory and field studies, best known for his distinction between two types of social groups, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. He co-founded the German Society
Society
for Sociology, of which he was president from 1909 to 1933, after which he was ousted for having criticized the Nazis. Tönnies was considered the first German sociologist proper,[1] published over 900 works and contributed to many areas of sociology and philosophy.Contents1 Life 2 Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft 3 Published works 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Ferdinand Tönnies
Ferdinand Tönnies
was born into a wealthy farmer's family in North Frisia, Schleswig, then under Danish rule
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G. D. H. Cole
George Douglas Howard Cole (25 September 1889 – 14 January 1959) was an English political theorist, economist, writer and historian. As a libertarian socialist he was a long-time member of the Fabian Society and an advocate for the co-operative movement.Contents1 Early life 2 First World War 3 Professional Life 4 Socialism 5 Co-operative studies 6 Personal life 7 Bibliography7.1 Non-fiction works 7.2 Detective stories8 References 9 Sources 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Cole was born in Cambridge, to George Cole, a jeweller who later became a surveyor, and his wife, Jessie Knowles.[3] Cole was educated at St Paul's School and Balliol College, Oxford where he achieved double firsts.[4] First World War[edit] As a conscientious objector during the First World War, Cole's involvement in the campaign against conscription introduced him to a co-worker, Margaret Postgate, whom he married in 1918
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Social Capital
Social capital
Social capital
is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good. The term generally refers to (a) resources, and the value of these resources, both tangible (public spaces, private property) and intangible ("actors", "human capital", people), (b) the relationships among these resources, and (c) the impact that these relationships have on the resources involved in each relationship, and on larger groups
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Richard Tawney
Richard Henry "R. H." Tawney (/ˈtɔːni/; 30 November 1880 – 16 January 1962) was an English economic historian,[1][2] social critic,[3][4] ethical socialist,[5] Christian socialist,[6][7] and an important proponent of adult education.[8][9] The Oxford Companion to British History (1997) explained that Tawney made a "significant impact" in all four of these "interrelated roles".[10] A. L. Rowse goes further by insisting that "Tawney exercised the widest influence of any historian of his time, politically, socially and, above all, educationally".[11]Contents1 Early life and Christian faith 2 Academic historian 3 Activism3.1 Social criticism 3.2 Christian socialist politics 3.3 Adult education advocacy4 Interment 5 Quotes 6 Works 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life and Christian faith[edit] Born in Calcutta, British India (present-day Kolkata, India), Tawney was the son of the Sanskrit scholar Charles Henry Tawney
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Cultural Capital
In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.[1] Cultural capital functions as a social-relation within an economy of practices (system of exchange), and comprises all of the material and symbolic goods, without distinction, that society considers rare and worth seeking.[2] As a social relation within a system of exchange, cultural capital includes the accumulated cultural knowledge that confers social status and power.[3][4] In "Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction" (1977), Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron presented cultural capital to conceptually explain the differences among the levels of performance and academic achievement of children within the educational system of France in the 19
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Hunter-gatherer
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting
Hunting
and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history.[1] Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gather
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Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
or the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary ( Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867
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Ontario
Ontario
Ontario
(/ɒnˈtɛərioʊ/ ( listen); French: [ɔ̃taʁjo]) is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada
Canada
and is located in east-central Canada.[7][8] It is Canada's most populous province[9] accounting for nearly 40 percent[10] of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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