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Karachaganak Field
Karachaganak Field
Karachaganak Field
is a gas condensate field in Kazakhstan. It is located about 23 kilometres (14 mi) east of Aksai (Aksai) in the northwest of Kazakhstan. The field was once a massive Permian
Permian
and Carboniferous
Carboniferous
reef complex covering an area 30 by 15 square kilometres (11.6 by 5.8 sq mi). At its largest point the reservoir contains a gas column 1,450 metres (4,760 ft) deep with a 200 metres (660 ft) deep oil rim below it. It is estimated to contain 1.2 trillion cubic metres (42 trillion cubic feet) of gas and one billion tonnes of liquid condensate and crude oil. Discovered in 1979, it began production under Karachaganckgazprom, a subsidiary of Gazprom. Kazakhgas took over operatorship after the independence of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in 1992
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Toluene
Toluene
Toluene
/ˈtɒljuːiːn/, also known as toluol /ˈtɒljuːɒl/, is an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, consisting of a CH3 group attached to a phenyl group. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methylbenzene
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Sakmarian
In the geologic timescale, the Sakmarian is an age or stage of the Permian. It is a subdivision of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch or series. The Sakmarian lasted between 295 and 290.1 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Asselian and followed by the Artinskian.[2]Contents1 Stratigraphy 2 Palaeontology2.1 Amphibians 2.2 Synapsids3 References 4 External linksStratigraphy[edit] The Sakmarian stage is named after the Sakmara River
Sakmara River
in the Ural Mountains, a tributary to the Ural River. The stage was introduced into scientific literature by Alexander Karpinsky
Alexander Karpinsky
in 1874
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Natural Gas
Natural gas
Natural gas
is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.[2] It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.[3] Natural gas
Natural gas
is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals
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Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea
Sea
is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.[2][3] It is an endorheic basin (a basin without outflows) located between Europe
Europe
and Asia.[4] It is bounded by Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to the northeast, Russia
Russia
to the northwest, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to the west, Iran
Iran
to the south, and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
to the southeast. The Caspian Sea
Sea
presently lies about 28 m (92 ft) below sea level in the Caspian Depression, to the east of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia
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Proterozoic
The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/[1][2]) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being".[3] The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals)
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Paleozoic
The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
(or Palaeozoic) Era ( /ˌpeɪliəˈzoʊɪk, ˌpæ-/;[1][2] from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life"[3]) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
was a time of dramatic geological, climatic, and evolutionary change
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Orogenic Belts
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates. An orogen or orogenic belt develops when a continental plate crumples and is pushed upwards to form one or more mountain ranges; this involves many geological processes collectively called orogenesis.[1][2] Orogeny
Orogeny
is the primary mechanism by which mountains are built on continents.[citation needed] The word "orogeny" comes from Ancient Greek (ὄρος oros, "mountain" + γένεσις genesis for "creation, origin").[3] Though it was used before him, the term was employed by the American geologist G.K
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Voronezh Massif
Voronezh
Voronezh
Massif
Massif
(also Voronezh
Voronezh
Anteclise Russian: Воронежская антеклиза, or Voronezh
Voronezh
Uplift) is a tectonic anteclise in the south of the Central Russian Upland
Central Russian Upland
with a high occurrence of the Precambrian
Precambrian
basement. It lies to the southwest of the town of Voronezh, Russia.[1] The massif covers the southwest area of European Russia. Ukraine lies to the northeast, while Belarus is to the east. The massif lies northwest of the Orsha depression and Zhlobin saddle, south-west and south of the Pripyat-Donetsk aulacogens, east of the Caspian Basin, and northeast of the Moscow Basin
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Massif
In geology, a massif ( /mæˈsiːf/ or /ˈmæsɪf/) is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole. The term also refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is frequently used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain. The massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology.[1] The word is taken from French (in which the word also means "massive"), where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range
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Kungurian
In the geologic timescale, the Kungurian is an age or stage of the Permian. It is the latest or upper of four subdivisions of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch or series. The Kungurian lasted between 283.5 and 272.95 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Artinskian
Artinskian
and followed by the Roadian.[2] It corresponds roughly to the Leonardian stage, covering the span from 280 to 270.6 ± 0.7 Ma in the North American system.[3]Contents1 Stratigraphy 2 Palaeontology2.1 Amphibians 2.2 Synapsids3 References 4 External linksStratigraphy[edit] The Kungurian is named after the Russian city of Kungur
Kungur
in the vicinity of Perm
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Artinskian
In the geologic timescale, the Artinskian
Artinskian
is an age or stage of the Permian. It is a subdivision of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch or series. The Artinskian
Artinskian
lasted between 290.1 and 283.5 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Sakmarian and followed by the Kungurian.[2]Contents1 Stratigraphy 2 Palaeontology2.1 Amphibians 2.2 Arthropods 2.3 Synapsids3 References 4 External linksStratigraphy[edit]Jimbacrinus bostocki Artinskian
Artinskian
of Australia. (Found near Jimba Jimba Station )The Artinskian
Artinskian
is named after the small Russian city of Arti (formerly Artinsk), situated in the southern Ural mountains, about 200 km southwest of Yekaterinburg
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Asselian
In the geologic timescale, the Asselian is the earliest geochronologic age or lowermost chronostratigraphic stage of the Permian. It is a subdivision of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch or series. The Asselian lasted between 298.9 and 295 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Gzhelian (the latest or uppermost subdivision in the Carboniferous) and followed by the Sakmarian.[2]Contents1 Stratigraphy 2 Palaeontology2.1 Amphibians 2.2 Synapsids3 References 4 External linksStratigraphy[edit] The Asselian stage was introduced into scientific literature in 1954, when the Russian stratigrapher V.E. Ruzhenchev split it from the Artinskian. At that moment the Artinskian
Artinskian
still encompassed most of the lower Permian
Permian
- its current definitions are more restricted
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Serpukhovian
The Serpukhovian is in the ICS geologic timescale the uppermost stage or youngest age of the Mississippian, the lower subsystem of the Carboniferous. The Serpukhovian age lasted from 330.9 Ma to 323.2 Ma.[2] It is preceded by the Visean and is followed by the Bashkirian. The Serpukhovian correlates with the lower part of the Namurian stage of European stratigraphy and the middle and upper parts of the Chesterian stage of North American stratigraphy.Contents1 Name and definition 2 Subdivision 3 Palaeontology3.1 Amphibians3.1.1 Reptiliomorphs3.2 Fish3.2.1 Cartilaginous fish4 See also 5 References5.1 Literature6 External linksName and definition[edit] The Serpukhovian stage was proposed in 1890 by Russian stratigrapher Sergei Nikitin and was introduced in the official stratigraphy of European Russia in 1974.[3] It was named after the city of Serpukhov, near Moscow
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Visean
The Visean, Viséan or Visian is an age in the ICS geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the second stage of the Mississippian, the lower subsystem of the Carboniferous. The Visean lasted from 346.7 to 330.9 Ma.[2] It follows the Tournaisian age/stage and is followed by the Serpukhovian age/stage.Contents1 Name and definitions 2 Tetrapods 3 Biostratigraphy 4 Palaeontology4.1 Amphibians4.1.1 Reptiliomorph4.2 Fish4.2.1 Cartilaginous fish 4.2.2 Tetrapodomorphs4.3 Arthropods5 References5.1 Literature6 External linksName and definitions[edit] The Visean stage was introduced by Belgian geologist André Dumont
André Dumont
in 1832. Dumont called this stage after the city of Visé
Visé
in the Belgian province of Liège
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