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Kapellmeister
Kapellmeister (German: [kaˈpɛl.ˌmaɪstɐ])[1] is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making. The word is a compound, consisting of the roots Kapelle ("choir", "orchestra", or originally, "chapel") and Meister ("master"). The word was originally used to refer to somebody in charge of music in a chapel. However, the term has evolved considerably in its meaning in response to changes in the musical profession.Contents1 Historical usage1.1 The case of Mozart2 Similar terms and equivalents 3 Composers who held the post of Kapellmeister 4 Contemporary usage 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit] In German-speaking countries during the approximate period 1500–1800, the word Kapellmeister often designated the director of music for a monarch or nobleman
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Compound Word
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding, composition or nominal composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes. That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined to make one longer word. The meaning of the compound may be similar to or different from the meanings of its components in isolation. The component stems of a compound may be of the same part of speech—as in the case of the English word footpath, composed of the two nouns foot and path—or they may belong to different parts of speech, as in the case of the English word blackbird, composed of the adjective black and the noun bird. With very few exceptions, English compound words are stressed on their first component stem. The process occurs readily in other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
for different reasons
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Portuguese Language
Argentina
Argentina
(South America) Indonesia
Indonesia
(Asia)[4][5] Senegal
Senegal
(Africa) South Africa
Africa
(Africa) Namibia
Namibia
(Africa) Uruguay
Uruguay
(South America)[6][7][8]Numerous international organisationsRegulated by International Portuguese Language Institute Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil) Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal) Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia) CPLPLanguage codesISO 639-1 ptISO 639-2 porISO 639-3 porGlottolog port1283[9]Linguasphere 51-AAA-a  Native language   Official and administrative language   Cultural or secondary language   Portuguese speaking minorities   Portuguese-based creole languagesThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Catalan Language
Catalan (/ˈkætəlæn, -ən, ˌkætəˈlæn/;[4] autonym: català [kətəˈla] or [kataˈla]) is a Western Romance
Western Romance
language derived from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra,[5] and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero.[6] These territories are often called Catalan Countries. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1558, king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
from 1526, and king of Croatia
Croatia
from 1527 until his death.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany
Germany
and developed useful relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Electorate Of Saxony
The Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
(German: Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen), sometimes referred to as Upper Saxony, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe- Wittenberg
Wittenberg
to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was enfeoffed to the Margraves of Meissen
Meissen
from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the residence up the Elbe
Elbe
river to Dresden
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Dresden
Dresden
Dresden
(German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩] ( listen); Czech: Drážďany, Polish: Drezno) is the capital city[2] and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city[3] of the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden
Dresden
has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden
Dresden
in World War II
World War II
towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre
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Saxony
The Free State of Saxony[4] (German: Freistaat Sachsen [ˈfʁaɪ̯ʃtaːt ˈzaksn̩]; Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland
Poland
(Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary, Liberec and Ústí nad Labem Regions). Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony
Saxony
is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people. The history of the state of Saxony
Saxony
spans more than a millennium
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Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(German: [ˈɪnsbʁʊk], local pronunciation: [ˈɪnʃprʊk]) is the capital city of Tyrol
Tyrol
in western Austria
Austria
and is the fifth-largest city in Austria
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