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Kapalıçarşı
The Grand Bazaar
Bazaar
(Turkish: Kapalıçarşı, meaning ‘Covered Market’; also Büyük Çarşı, meaning ‘Grand Market’[1]) in Istanbul
Istanbul
is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered
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Tehran
Tehran
Tehran
(/tɛˈræn, -ˈrɑːn, ˌtɛhə-, ˌteɪə-/; Persian: تهران‎ Tehrân [tʰehˈɾɒːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Iran
Iran
and Tehran
Tehran
Province. With a population of around 8.8 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran
Tehran
is the most populous city in Iran
Iran
and Western Asia,[4] and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East
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Golden Horn
The Golden Horn
Golden Horn
(Turkish: Altın Boynuz; Ancient Greek: Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Latin: Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
in Istanbul, Turkey. This prominent body of water is a horn-shaped estuary that joins Bosphorus
Bosphorus
Strait
Strait
at the immediate point where the strait meets the Sea of Marmara, thus forming a narrow, isolated peninsula, the tip of which is "Old Istanbul" (ancient Byzantium
Byzantium
and Constantinople), and the promontory of Sarayburnu, or Seraglio Point
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Forum (Roman)
A forum ( Latin
Latin
forum "public place outdoors",[1] plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls. Many fora were constructed at remote locations along a road by the magistrate responsible for the road, in which case the forum was the only settlement at the site and had its own name, such as Forum Popili or Forum Livi.[2]Contents1 The functions of a forum 2 Typical forum structures 3 Equivalent spaces in other cultures 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksThe functions of a forum[edit]The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. The columns mark the location of a stoa, or covered walkway, where the stalls of open-air vendors might be located in bad weather
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Forum Of Constantine
The Forum of Constantine
Forum of Constantine
(Greek: Φόρος Κωνσταντίνου) was built at the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
immediately outside the old city walls of Byzantium. It marked the centre of the new city, and was a central point along the Mese, the main ceremonial road through the city.[1] It was circular and had two monumental gates to the east and west. The Column of Constantine, which still stands upright and is known today in Turkish as Çemberlitaş, was erected in the centre of the square. The column was originally crowned with a statue of Constantine I
Constantine I
(3. 306–337) as Apollo,[2] but a strong gale in 1150 caused the statue and three of the column's upper drums to fall, and a cross was added in its place by the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos
(r. 1143–1180)
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Forum Of Theodosius
The Forum of Theodosius
Forum of Theodosius
(Greek: φόρος Θεοδοσίου, today Beyazıt Square) was an area in Constantinople. It was originally built by Constantine I
Constantine I
and named the Forum Tauri ("Forum of the Bull"). In 393, however, it was renamed after Emperor Theodosius I, who rebuilt it after the model of Trajan's Forum
Trajan's Forum
in Rome, surrounded by civic buildings such as churches and baths and decorated with porticoes as well as a triumphal column at its center.Contents1 Column of Theodosius 2 Basilica 3 Triumphal arch 4 See also 5 External linksColumn of Theodosius[edit] See also: List of ancient spiral stairs In the middle of the forum was a Roman triumphal column
Roman triumphal column
erected in honour of emperor Theodosius I. Its shaft was carved with reliefs depicting this emperor's victory over the barbarians and a statue of him stood on top
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Waqf
A waqf (Arabic: وقف‎), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim
Muslim
religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.[1] The donated assets may be held by a charitable trust. The person making such dedication is known as waqif, a donor
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Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
(/ˈhɑːɡiə soʊˈfiːə/; from the Greek: Αγία Σοφία, pronounced [aˈʝia soˈfia], "Holy Wisdom"; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Turkish: Ayasofya) was a Greek Orthodox Christian
Christian
patriarchal basilica (church), later an imperial mosque, and is now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople,[1] except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. The building was later converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931
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Brickwork
Brickwork
Brickwork
is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks—called courses—[1][2] are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall. Brick
Brick
is a popular medium for constructing buildings, and examples of brickwork are found through history as far back as the Bronze Age. The fired-brick faces of the ziggurat of ancient Dur-Kurigalzu
Dur-Kurigalzu
in Iraq date from around 1400 BC, and the brick buildings of ancient Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
in Pakistan were built around 2600 BC. Much older examples of brickwork made with dried (but not fired) bricks may be found in such ancient locations as Jericho
Jericho
in Judea, Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia, and Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
in Pakistan
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Komnenos
Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί [komniˈni]), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185,[1] and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204–1461)
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Slave Trade
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places.[1] Slavery
Slavery
can be traced back to the earliest records, such as the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
Code of Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
(c. 1860 BC), which refers to it as an established institution, and it was common among ancient peoples.[2] Slavery
Slavery
is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, because it is developed as a system of social stratification.[3][4] Slavery
Slavery
was known in the very first civilizations such as Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia which dates back as far as 3500 BC, as well as in almost every other civilization
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Portico
A portico (from Italian) is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures. Some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico
Portico
of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome
Rome
and the portico of University College London. Porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Palladio
Palladio
was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings
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1894 Istanbul Earthquake
The 1894 Istanbul
Istanbul
earthquake occurred in the Çınarcık basin or Gulf of Izmit
Izmit
in the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
on 10 July at 12:24pm. The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.0 on the surface wave magnitude scale.[3] At least an estimated 1,349 people were killed in towns around the Gulf of Izmit
Gulf of Izmit
such as Yalova, Sapanca
Sapanca
and Adapazarı, and in the nearby city of Istanbul.[2] The main shock caused a tsunami 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) high.Contents1 Background 2 Damage 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit]An 1894 xylograph showing damage to the Wall of Constantine, in Istanbul, following the July 10, 1894, earthquake in Istanbul
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Suleyman I
Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سلطان سليمان اول‎ Sultan Süleyman-ı Evvel; Turkish: Birinci Süleyman, Kanunî Sultan Süleyman or Muhteşem Süleyman;[3] 6 November 1494 – 6 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in the West and Kanunî Sultan
Sultan
Süleyman (Ottoman Turkish: قانونى سلطان سليمان‎‎; "The Lawgiver Suleiman") in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
from 1520 until his death in 1566.[4] Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over 15 to 25 million people. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's economic, military and political power
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