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Kang Yu-wei
Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei
(Chinese: 康有為; Cantonese: Hōng Yáuh-wàih; 19 March 1858 – 31 March 1927) was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty. Through his connections, he became close to the young emperor and fervently encouraged the young monarch to promote his friends and consequently soured the relationship between the emperor and his adoptive mother, the empress dowager Cixi. He led movements to establish a constitutional monarchy and was an ardent Chinese nationalist and internationalist. His ideas inspired a reformation movement that was thought to be supported by the weak Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
but made out to be loathed by the powerful Empress Dowager Cixi
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Nanhai District
Nanhai District, is a district of Foshan, Guangdong, China. Its government is the first to have developed e-government informatization at the county level in China.Contents1 History 2 Administration division2.1 E-government3 Famous people from Nanhai 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The town was established in 1271 by two brothers carrying their father's bowls. They were fleeing south from the Mongols on a bamboo raft when a violent storm shipwrecked them and broke all the bowls. The brothers settled down there and the position of the wreck is commemorated by a shrine. This area was named Broken Bowls Point. 15 February 1921 eastern part of Nanhai County was ceded to the newly established City of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
which became part of what is now western part of Liwan. On 26 June 1951 Foshan
Foshan
Town (present Chancheng) was ceded to the newly established City of Foshan
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Heresy
Heresy
Heresy
(/ˈhɛrəsi/) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization
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Foshan
Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong
Guangdong
Province in southeastern China
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Imperial Examinations
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy. Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty, the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid-Tang dynasty, and remained so until its abolition in 1905 . Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule, while leaving clear problems resulting from a systemic lack of technical and practical expertise. The examination helped to shape China's intellectual, cultural, political, shopping, arts and crafts, and religious life
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Eight-legged Essay
The eight-legged essay (Chinese: 八股文; pinyin: bāgǔwén) was a style of essay writing that needed to be used to pass the imperial examinations during the Ming and Qing dynasties.Contents1 Name 2 Structure and content 3 History 4 A sample essay 5 Viewpoints 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingName[edit] The eight-legged essay is named so because it was divided into eight sections.[1] The term "essay" itself originates with Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne
in 1580, when he published Essays. The term "essay" then described a genera of literary endeavor. Montaigne's essays demonstrated a narrative deductive rather than inductive approach to examining and explaining experience
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Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Confucius
Confucius
Confucius
(/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC – 479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty
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Reactionary
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society. As an adjective, the word reactionary describes points of view and policies meant to restore the status quo ante.[1] Political reactionaries are largely found on the right-wing of a political spectrum, though left-wing reactionaries can also exist.[2] Reactionary
Reactionary
ideologies can also be radical, in the sense of political extremism, in service to re-establishing the status quo ante
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Old Texts
In Chinese philology, the Old Texts
Old Texts
(Chinese: 古文經; pinyin: Gǔwén Jīng; Wade–Giles: Kuwen Ching) refer to some versions of the Five Classics discovered during the Han Dynasty, written in archaic characters and supposedly produced before the burning of the books, as opposed to the Modern Texts or New Texts (今文經) in the new orthography. The last half of the 2nd century BC was the period when new versions of the Confucian classics were discovered. Most of these new versions were found in the walls of Confucius’s old residence in Qufu, the old capital of State of Lu, when Prince Liu Yu (d. 127 BC) attempted to expand it into a palace upon taking the throne there
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Chinese Classic Texts
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts (simplified Chinese: 中国古典典籍; traditional Chinese: 中國古典典籍; pinyin: Zhōngguó gǔdiǎn diǎnjí) refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics". All of these pre-Qin texts were written in classical Chinese. All three canons are collectively known as the classics (t 經, s 经, jīng, lit. "warp").[1] Chinese classic texts may more broadly refer to texts written either in vernacular Chinese or in the classical Chinese that was current until the fall of the last imperial dynasty, the Qing, in 1912
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Forgery
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item. Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations. Forging
Forging
money or currency is more often called counterfeiting. But consumer goods may also be counterfeits if they are not manufactured or produced by the designated manufacturer or producer given on the label or flagged by the trademark symbol. When the object forged is a record or document it is often called a false document. This usage of "forgery" does not derive from metalwork done at a forge, but it has a parallel history
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Meiji Period
The Meiji period
Meiji period
(明治時代, Meiji-jidai), also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.[1] This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan
Japan
during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to its modern form. Fundamental changes affected its social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912
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Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
(Chinese: 梁啟超; Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and the early Republic of China
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Republic Of China (1912–1949)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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Capital Punishment
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Etymologically, the term capital (lit
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