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Kandyan Wars
British victoryEnd of 2357 years of Sinhalese independence[1]Belligerents Kingdom of Kandy  British EmpireCommanders and leadersKing Vikrama Rajasinha Dissawa Lewke Hay MacDowall Adam Davy Colonel BarbutPart of a series on theHistory of Kandy Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
(1469–1815)Founding Sinhalese–Portuguese War Kandyan Treaty of 1638 Portuguese Ceylon Treaty of Batticaloa Kandyan WarsColonial
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Sri Vikrama Rajasinha
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1780 – January 30, 1832, born Kannasamy Nayaka) was the last of four Kings, to rule the last Sinhalese monarchy of the Kingdom of Kandy
Kingdom of Kandy
in Sri Lanka. The Nayak Kings were Telugu nominal Buddhists[1] who practiced Hinduism[2]. It is claimed that they spoke Tamil.[3][4][5][6] The King was eventually deposed by the British under the terms of the Kandyan Convention, in 1815, ending over 2300 years of Sinhalese monarchy on the island. The island was incorporated into the British Empire, and Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was succeeded by George III, as monarch of British Ceylon.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign2.1 Early reign 2.2 Internal Conflict3 Death 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Prior to his coronation in 1798, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was known as Prince Kannasamy.[7] He was a member of the Madurai
Madurai
royal family and the nephew of Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha
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Puppet State
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.[1] It is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests.[2] A puppet state preserves the external paraphernalia of independence like a name, flag, anthem, constitution, law codes and motto but in reality is an organ of another state which created or sponsored the government.[3] Puppet states are not recognized as legitimate under international law.[4]Contents1 Etymology of the term 2 19th century 3 World War I3.1 Republics of Soviet Russia/Soviet Union3.1.1 Non-realized republics of Soviet Russia4 Imperial Japan4.1 Nominally sovereign states 4.2 Unrealized drafts for dependent states5
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War Of The First Coalition
French victory; Peace of Basel, Treaty of Campo FormioEstablishment and survival of the French First Republic French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands, the Left Bank of the Rhine
Rhine
and other smaller territories Several French "sister republics" established Hostilities resume in 1798 with the formation of a Second Coalition against FranceBelligerentsFirst Coalition:  Holy Roman Empire[1] Habsburg Monarchy  Prussia (until 1795)[2] Great Britain Army of Condé
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Trincomalee
Trincomalee (English: /ˌtrɪŋkoʊməˈliː/; Tamil: திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; Sinhalese: ත්‍රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna,[1] is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. Located on the east coast of the island overlooking the Trincomalee Harbour, 113 miles south of Jaffna and 69 miles north of Batticaloa, Trincomalee has been one of the main centres of Sri Lankan Tamil language speaking culture on the island for over two millennia. With a population of 99,135,[2] the city is built on a peninsula of the same name, which divides its inner and outer harbours. People from Trincomalee are known as Trincomalians and the local authority is Trincomalee Urban Council
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Kew Letters
The Kew
Kew
Letters (also known as the Circular Note of Kew) were a number of letters, written by stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange
William V, Prince of Orange
between 30 January and 8 February 1795 from the "Dutch House" at Kew
Kew
Palace, where he temporarily stayed after his trip to England on 18 January 1795. The letters were written in his capacity of Captain-general of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
to the civil and military authorities in the provinces of Zeeland
Zeeland
and Friesland
Friesland
(that had not yet capitulated at the time), to the officers commanding Dutch naval vessels in British harbours and to Dutch colonial governors
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Batticaloa
Batticaloa (Tamil: மட்டக்களப்பு, Maṭṭakkaḷappu; Sinhalese: මඩකලපුව, Madakalapuwa) is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital. It is the administrative capital of the Batticaloa District. The city is the seat of the Eastern University of Sri Lanka and is a major commercial city. It is on the east coast, 69 miles (111 km) south of Trincomalee, and is situated on an island
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Galle
Galle
Galle
(Sinhalese: ගාල්ල; Tamil: காலி) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip, 119 km from Colombo. Galle
Galle
is the administrative capital of Southern Province, Sri Lanka and is the district capital of Galle
Galle
District. Galle
Galle
was known as Gimhathiththa[1](although Ibn Batuta
Ibn Batuta
in the 14th century refers to it as Qali[2]) before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, when it was the main port on the island. Galle reached the height of its development in the 18th century, during the Dutch colonial period. Galle
Galle
is the best example of a fortified city built by the Portuguese in South and Southeast Asia, showing the interaction between Portuguese architectural styles and native traditions
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Jaffna
Jaffna
Jaffna
(Tamil: யாழ்ப்பாணம், translit. Yāḻppāṇam, Sinhalese: යාපනය, translit. Yāpanaya) is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It is the administrative headquarters of the Jaffna district located on a peninsula of the same name. With a population of 88,138, Jaffna
Jaffna
is Sri Lanka's 12th largest city.[1] Jaffna
Jaffna
is approximately six miles (9.7 kilometres) from Kandarodai
Kandarodai
which served as an emporium in the Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula from classical antiquity. Jaffna's suburb Nallur served as the capital of the four-century-long medieval Jaffna
Jaffna
kingdom. Prior to the Sri Lankan civil war, it was Sri Lanka's second most populated city after the commercial capital Colombo
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Madurai Nayak Dynasty
Tiruchirapalli (1616–1634) Madurai (1634–1695) Tiruchirapalli (1695-1716) Madurai (1716–1736)Languages Telugu, TamilGovernment Governors, then MonarchyHistory •  Established 1529 •  Disestablished 1736Preceding StatesPandiyan Dynasty Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate Madurai
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Sinhalese People
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.[15] They constitute about 75% of the Sri Lankan population and number greater than 16.2 million.[16][2] The Sinhalese identity is based on language, historical heritage and religion. The Sinhalese people
Sinhalese people
speak the Sinhalese language, an Indo-Aryan language, and are predominantly Theravada
Theravada
Buddhists,[17] although a small percentage of Sinhalese follow branches of Christianity. The Sinhalese are mostly found in North central, Central, South, and West Sri Lanka
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Batavian Revolution
The Batavian Revolution
Batavian Revolution
(Dutch: De Bataafse Revolutie) was a political, social and cultural turmoil at the end of the 18th century that marked the end of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and saw the proclamation of the Batavian Republic
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Colombo
Colombo
Colombo
(/kəˈlʌmboʊ/; Sinhalese: කොළඹ Kolamba, pronounced [ˈkəlɐmbɞ]; Tamil: கொழும்பு, translit. Koḻumpu) is the commercial capital[3] and largest city of Sri Lanka. According to the Brookings Institution, Colombo metropolitan area has a population of 5.6 million,[4][5][6][7] and 752,993[2] in the city proper. It is the financial centre of the island and a popular tourist destination. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to the Greater Colombo
Greater Colombo
area which includes Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, the legislative capital of Sri Lanka and Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia. Colombo
Colombo
is often referred to as the capital since Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
is within the urban area of, and a suburb of, Colombo
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King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
The King's Own Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Light Infantry
Infantry
(KOYLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army. It officially existed from 1881 to 1968, but its predecessors go back to 1755
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Mahaweli River
The Mahaweli River
River
(Sinhalese: මහවැලි ගඟ, literally "Great Sandy River"; Tamil: மகாவலி ஆறு [mahawali gangai]),[2] is a 335 km (208 mi) long river, ranking as the longest river in Sri Lanka. Its drainage basin is the largest in the country, and covers almost one-fifth of the total area of the island. The real creation of Mahaweli ganga starts at Polwathura(at Mahawila area), a remote village of Nuwara-Eliya District in bank Nawalapitiya of Kandy District by further joining of Hatton oya and Kotmale oya.The river reaches the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southwestern side of Trincomalee Bay
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