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Kamanio Chattopadhyay
KAMANIO CHATTOPADHYAY (born 1950) is an Indian materials engineer and an honorary professor at the Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science
, Bengaluru. He is the chair of the Mechanical Sciences Division of IISc and a former chair of the Department of Materials Engineering. Chattopadhyay is best known for his discovery of decagonal nanoquantum quasicrystals which he accomplished in 1985, along with L. Bendersky and S. Ranganathan. He is also credited with researches on synthesis and characterization of quasicrystals and nanocomposites and is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies viz. Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences
, Indian National Science Academy and National Academy of Sciences, India as well as the Indian National Academy of Engineering
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Nanostructured
A NANOSTRUCTURE is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures . Nanostructural detail is microstructure at nanoscale . In describing nanostructures, it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions in the volume of an object which are on the nanoscale . Nanotextured surfaces have one dimension on the nanoscale, i.e., only the thickness of the surface of an object is between 0.1 and 100 nm. Nanotubes have two dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the diameter of the tube is between 0.1 and 100 nm; its length can be far more. Finally, spherical nanoparticles have three dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the particle is between 0.1 and 100 nm in each spatial dimension. The terms nanoparticles and ultrafine particles (UFP) are often used synonymously although UFP can reach into the micrometre range. The term nanostructure is often used when referring to magnetic technology
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Superheating
In physics , SUPERHEATING (sometimes referred to as BOILING RETARDATION, or BOILING DELAY) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point , without boiling. Superheating
Superheating
is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites, while taking care not to disturb the liquid. CONTENTS * 1 Cause * 2 Occurrence via microwave oven * 3 Applications * 4 Myth * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CAUSE For boiling to occur, the vapor pressure must exceed the ambient pressure plus a small amount of pressure induced by surface tension Water is said to "boil" when bubbles of water vapor grow without bound, bursting at the surface. For a vapor bubble to expand, the temperature must be high enough that the vapor pressure exceeds the ambient pressure (the atmospheric pressure , primarily)
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Magnetic Alloys
A MAGNETIC ALLOY is a combination of various metals from the periodic table that contains at least one of the three main magnetic elements: iron (Fe) , nickel (Ni) , and cobalt (Co) . Such an alloy must contain but is not limited to one or more of these metals. Magnetic alloys have become common, especially in the form of steel (iron and carbon), alnico (iron, nickel, cobalt, and aluminum ), and permalloy (iron and nickel). The strongest magnetic element is iron, which allows items made out of these alloys to attract to magnets. REFERENCES * ^ "Cobalt Facts" (PDF). Cobalt Development Institute. 2006. pp. 23–28. Retrieved 3 July 2013. * ^ Kondo, Jun (July 1964). "Resistance Minimum in Dilute Magnetic Alloys" (PDF). Progress of Theoretical Physics. 32 (01): 37–49. doi :10.1143/PTP.32.37
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Metallic Glasses
An AMORPHOUS METAL (also known as METALLIC GLASS or GLASSY METAL) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy , with a disordered atomic-scale structure. Most metals are crystalline in their solid state, which means they have a highly ordered arrangement of atoms . Amorphous metals are non-crystalline, and have a glass-like structure . But unlike common glasses, such as window glass, which are typically electrical insulators , amorphous metals have good electrical conductivity . There are several ways in which amorphous metals can be produced, including extremely rapid cooling , physical vapor deposition , solid-state reaction , ion irradiation , and mechanical alloying . In the past, small batches of amorphous metals have been produced through a variety of quick-cooling methods. For instance, amorphous metal ribbons have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk (melt spinning )
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Google Scholar
GOOGLE SCHOLAR is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google
Google
Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations , preprints , abstracts , technical reports , and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents . While Google
Google
does not publish the size of Google
Google
Scholar's database, third-party researchers estimated it to contain roughly 160 million documents as of May 2014 and an earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS ONE using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80-90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million
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Nanocomposites
NANOCOMPOSITE is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. The idea behind Nanocomposite is to use building blocks with dimensions in nanometre range to design and create new materials with unprecedented flexibility and improvement in their physical properties. In the broadest sense this definition can include porous media , colloids , gels and copolymers , but is more usually taken to mean the solid combination of a bulk matrix and nano-dimensional phase(s) differing in properties due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, electrochemical, catalytic properties of the nanocomposite will differ markedly from that of the component materials
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Decagonal
In geometry , a DECAGON is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon. CONTENTS* 1 Regular decagon * 1.1 Area * 1.2 Sides * 1.3 Construction * 2 The golden ratio in decagon * 3 Symmetry * 4 Dissection of regular decagon * 5 Skew decagon * 5.1 Petrie polygons * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links REGULAR DECAGONA regular decagon has all sides of equal length and each internal angle will always be equal to 144°. Its Schläfli symbol is {10} and can also be constructed as a truncated pentagon , t{5}, a quasiregular decagon alternating two types of edges
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Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research
The COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ( Hindi
Hindi
: वैज्ञानिक तथा औद्योगिक अनुसंधान परिषद, IAST
IAST
: vagyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada; abbreviated as CSIR) was established by the Government of India
Government of India
in 1942 is an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India. It runs thirty-seven laboratories and thirty-nine field stations or extension centres throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 17,000 workers. Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology , it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860
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Burdwan University
THE UNIVERSITY OF BURDWAN (also BURDWAN UNIVERSITY or B.U.; is a public university in Bardhaman , West Bengal , India . It was established by the West Bengal Government as a teaching and affiliating university on 15 June 1960 with six graduate departments and 30 undergraduate colleges spread over three districts that come under the jurisdiction of the university. The jurisdiction covers the districts of Burdwan , Birbhum , Bankura and Hooghly (except Serampore ). The main campus is of 398 acres (approximately). The university offers more than 30 undergraduate and 66 postgraduate courses. There are 227 Esteemed Faculties and 189 affiliated colleges (including degree colleges, B.Ed. colleges and private professional institutes). The university has been awarded A Grade by the NAAC on 06/11/2016
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Illinois University
The UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA–CHAMPAIGN (also known as U OF I, ILLINOIS, or colloquially as the UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois . Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana , it is the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system and a founding member of the Big Ten Conference . The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education , which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2015, total research expenditures at Illinois totaled $640 million. The campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States after Harvard University
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Bainite
BAINITE is a plate-like microstructure that forms in steels at temperatures of 250–550 °C (depending on alloy content). First described by E. S. Davenport and Edgar Bain , it is one of the products that may form when austenite (the face centered cubic crystal structure of iron ) is cooled past a critical temperature. This critical temperature is 1000 K (727 °C, 1340 °F) in plain carbon steels. Davenport and Bain originally described the microstructure as being similar in appearance to tempered martensite . A fine non-lamellar structure, bainite commonly consists of cementite and dislocation -rich ferrite . The high concentration of dislocations in the ferrite present in bainite makes this ferrite harder than it normally would be. The temperature range for transformation of austenite to bainite (250–550 °C) is between those for pearlite and martensite
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ResearchGate
RESEARCHGATE is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users, although other services have more registered users and more recent data suggests that almost as many academics have Google Scholar
Google Scholar
profiles. People that wish to use the site need to have an email address at a recognized institution or to be manually confirmed as a published researcher in order to sign up for an account. Members of the site each have a user profile and can upload research output including papers, data, chapters, negative results, patents, research proposals, methods, presentations, and software source code. Users may also follow the activities of other users and engage in discussions with them
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Exeter University
Streatham – 350 acres (140 ha) Penryn – 70 acres (28 ha) St. Luke\'s – 16 acres (6.5 ha) COLOURS Green and white AFFILIATIONS Russell Group
Russell Group
Universities UK EUA ACU A MBA SETsquared GW4 WEBSITE www.exeter.ac.ukThe UNIVERSITY OF EXETER is a public research university in Exeter
Exeter
, Devon
Devon
, South West England , United Kingdom. The university was founded and received its Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1955, although its predecessor institutions, the ROYAL ALBERT MEMORIAL COLLEGE and the UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF THE SOUTH WEST OF ENGLAND, were established in 1900 and 1922 respectively. In post-nominals , the University of Exeter
Exeter
is abbreviated as Exon
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Amazon Standard Identification Number
The AMAZON STANDARD IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by Amazon.com and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization. USAGE AND STRUCTUREAlthough ASINs used to be unique worldwide, global expansion has changed things so that ASINs are only guaranteed unique within a marketplace. The same product may be referred to by several ASINs though, and different national sites may use a different ASIN for the same product. In general, ASINs are likely to be different between the country sites unless they are for a class of product where the ASIN is based on an externally defined and internationally consistent identifier, such as ISBN
ISBN
for books. Each product sold on Amazon.com is given a unique ASIN
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