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Kamanio Chattopadhyay
Kamanio Chattopadhyay
Kamanio Chattopadhyay
(born 1950) is an Indian materials engineer and an honorary professor at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. [1] He is the chair of the Mechanical Sciences Division of IISc[2] and a former chair of the Department of Materials Engineering.[3] Chattopadhyay is best known for his discovery of decagonal nanoquantum quasicrystals which he accomplished in 1985, along with L. Bendersky and S. Ranganathan.[4][5] He is also credited with researches on synthesis and characterization of quasicrystals and nanocomposites[6] and is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies viz
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West Bengal
West Bengal
Bengal
(/wɛst bɛŋˈɡɔːl/) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India
India
on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants (as of 2011), it is India's fourth-most populous state. It has an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal
Bengal
region, it borders Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in the east, and Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan
Bhutan
in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata
Kolkata
(Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India. As for geography, West Bengal
Bengal
includes the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Himalayan hill region, the Ganges
Ganges
delta, the Rarh region, and the coastal Sundarbans
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ResearchGate
ResearchGate
ResearchGate
is a social networking site for scientists and researchers[3] to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators.[4] According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education, it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users,[5][6] although other services have more registered users and more recent data suggests that almost as many academics have Google Scholar
Google Scholar
profiles.[7] While reading articles does not require registration, people that wish to become site members need to have an email address at a recognized institution or to be manually confirmed as a published researcher in order to sign up for an account.[8] Members of the site each have a user profile and can upload research output including papers, data, chapters, negative results, patents, research proposals, methods, presentations, and software source code
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Illinois University
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC)[7][8] is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois
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Bainite
Bainite
Bainite
is a plate-like microstructure that forms in steels at temperatures of 250–550 °C (depending on alloy content).[1] First described by E. S. Davenport and Edgar Bain, it is one of the products that may form when austenite (the face centered cubic crystal structure of iron) is cooled past a critical temperature. This critical temperature is 1000 K (727 °C, 1340 °F) in plain carbon steels. Davenport and Bain originally described the microstructure as being similar in appearance to tempered martensite. A fine non-lamellar structure, bainite commonly consists of cementite and dislocation-rich ferrite
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Decagonal
In geometry, a decagon is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon.[1]Contents1 Regular decagon1.1 Area 1.2 Sides 1.3 Construction2 The golden ratio in decagon 3 Symmetry 4 Dissection 5 Skew decagon5.1 Petrie polygons6 See also 7 References 8 External linksRegular decagon[edit] A regular decagon has all sides of equal length and each internal angle will always be equal to 144°.[1] Its Schläfli symbol is 10 [2] and can also be constructed as a truncated pentagon, t 5 , a quasiregular decagon alternating two types of edges. Area[edit] The area of a regular decagon of side length a is given by:[3] A = 5 2 a 2 cot ⁡ ( π 10 ) = 5 2 a 2 5 + 2


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Nanocomposites
Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. The idea behind Nanocomposite is to use building blocks with dimensions in nanometre range to design and create new materials with unprecedented flexibility and improvement in their physical properties. In the broadest sense this definition can include porous media, colloids, gels and copolymers, but is more usually taken to mean the solid combination of a bulk matrix and nano-dimensional phase(s) differing in properties due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, electrochemical, catalytic properties of the nanocomposite will differ markedly from that of the component materials
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Superheating
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling. Superheating
Superheating
is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites, while taking care not to disturb the liquid.Contents1 Cause 2 Occurrence via microwave oven 3 Applications 4 Myth 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksCause[edit]For boiling to occur, the vapor pressure must exceed the ambient pressure plus a small amount of pressure induced by surface tensionWater is said to "boil" when bubbles of water vapor grow without bound, bursting at the surface. For a vapor bubble to expand, the temperature must be high enough that the vapor pressure exceeds the ambient pressure (the atmospheric pressure, primarily)
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Nanostructured
A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures. Nanostructural detail is microstructure at nanoscale. In describing nanostructures, it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions in the volume of an object which are on the nanoscale. Nanotextured surfaces have one dimension on the nanoscale, i.e., only the thickness of the surface of an object is between 0.1 and 100 nm. Nanotubes have two dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the diameter of the tube is between 0.1 and 100 nm; its length can be far more. Finally, spherical nanoparticles have three dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., the particle is between 0.1 and 100 nm in each spatial dimension. The terms nanoparticles and ultrafine particles (UFP) are often used synonymously although UFP can reach into the micrometre range
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Magnetic Alloys
A magnetic alloy is a combination of various metals from the periodic table that contains at least one of the three main magnetic elements: iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co). Such an alloy must contain but is not limited to one or more of these metals. Magnetic alloys have become common, especially in the form of steel (iron and carbon), alnico (iron, nickel, cobalt, and aluminum), and permalloy (iron and nickel). The strongest magnetic element is iron, which allows items made out of these alloys to attract to magnets.[1][2] References[edit]^ "Cobalt Facts" (PDF). Cobalt Development Institute. 2006. pp. 23–28. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Kondo, Jun (July 1964). "Resistance Minimum in Dilute Magnetic Alloys" (PDF). Progress of Theoretical Physics. 32 (1): 37–49. doi:10.1143/PTP.32.37. See also[edit]FerroalloyExternal links[edit]Magnetic Alloys. Cobalt Institute. 2017.This alloy-related article is a stub
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Metallic Glasses
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure. Most metals are crystalline in their solid state, which means they have a highly ordered arrangement of atoms. Amorphous metals are non-crystalline, and have a glass-like structure. But unlike common glasses, such as window glass, which are typically electrical insulators, amorphous metals have good electrical conductivity. There are several ways in which amorphous metals can be produced, including extremely rapid cooling, physical vapor deposition, solid-state reaction, ion irradiation, and mechanical alloying.[1][2] In the past, small batches of amorphous metals have been produced through a variety of quick-cooling methods. For instance, amorphous metal ribbons have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk (melt spinning)
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Google Scholar
Google
Google
Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines
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Exeter University
Streatham – 350 acres (140 ha)[3] Penryn – 70 acres (28 ha)[4] St. Luke's – 16 acres (6.5 ha)Colours Green and white                       Affiliations Russell Group Universities UK EUA ACU AMBA SETsquared GW4Website www.exeter.ac.ukThe University of Exeter
Exeter
is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom. The university was founded and received its Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1955, although its predecessor institutions, the Royal Albert Memorial College
Royal Albert Memorial College
and the University College of the South West of England, were established in 1900 and 1922 respectively.[5][6] In post-nominals, the University of Exeter
Exeter
is abbreviated as Exon
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Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
(IAST: vagyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada; abbreviated as CSIR) was established by the Government of India
Government of India
in 1942 is an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India. It runs thirty-eight laboratories and thirty-nine field stations or extension centres throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 12,000 scientists and scientific and technical personnel.[1] Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.[2] The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.[2] Dr
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Indian Space Research Organization
Coordinates: 12°58′0″N 77°34′0″E / 12.96667°N 77.56667°E / 12.96667; 77.56667Indian Space Research Organization Bhāratīya Aṃtarikṣa Anusaṃdhāna Saṃgaṭhana ISRO
ISRO
logoAcronym ISROOwner Department of Space, Government of IndiaEstablished 15 August 1969; 48 years ago (1969-08-15) (1962 as INCOSPAR)Headquarters Bangalore, Karnataka, IndiaPrimary spaceport Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaMotto मानव जाति की सेवा में अंतरिक्ष प्रौद्योगिकी (Hindi) IAST: Mānav Jāti Kī Sevā Men Antarikṣa Praudyogikī (Space technology in the Service of humankind.)Administrator Dr. K
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Microgravity
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.[1] The symbol for microgravity, µg, was used on the insignias of Space Shuttle flights STS-87
STS-87
and STS-107, because these flights were devoted to microgravity research in low Earth
Earth
orbit.Contents1 Absence of gravity 2 Free fall 3 Tidal and inertial acceleration 4 Commercial applications4.1 Metal spheres 4.2 High-quality crystals5 Health effects of the micro-g environment5.1 Space Motion Sickness 5.2 Musculoskeletal Effects 5.3 Cardiovascular Effects6 Impacts to Worker Safety 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksAbsence of gravity[edit] A "stationary" micro-g environment[2] would require travelling far enough into deep space so as to reduce the effect of gravity by attenuation to almost zero
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