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Kaluza–Klein Theory
In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory
Kaluza–Klein theory
(KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory. The five-dimensional theory developed in three steps. The original hypothesis came from Theodor Kaluza, who sent his results to Einstein in 1919,[1] and published them in 1921,[2] which detailed a purely classical extension of general relativity to five dimensions and includes 15 components. Ten components are identified with the four-dimensional spacetime metric, four components with the electromagnetic vector potential, and one component with an unidentified scalar field sometimes called the "radion" or the "dilaton"
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K Theory
In mathematics, K-theory is, roughly speaking, the study of a ring generated by vector bundles over a topological space or scheme. In algebraic topology, it is a cohomology theory known as topological K-theory. In algebra and algebraic geometry, it is referred to as algebraic K-theory. It is also a fundamental tool in the field of operator algebras. It can be seen as the study of certain kinds of invariants of large matrices.[1] K-theory involves the construction of families of K-functors that map from topological spaces or schemes to associated rings; these rings reflect some aspects of the structure of the original spaces or schemes. As with functors to groups in algebraic topology, the reason for this functorial mapping is that it is easier to compute some topological properties from the mapped rings than from the original spaces or schemes
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Stochastic Electrodynamics
Stochastic electrodynamics
Stochastic electrodynamics
(SED) an extension of the de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, with the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) playing a central role as the guiding pilot-wave. The theory is a deterministic nonlocal hidden-variable theory.[2][3] It is distinct from other more mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics such as the Copenhagen interpretation and Everett's many-worlds interpretation.[4] SED describes energy contained in the electromagnetic vacuum at absolute zero as a stochastic, fluctuating zero-point field
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Topological Quantum Field Theory
A topological quantum field theory (or topological field theory or TQFT) is a quantum field theory which computes topological invariants. Although TQFTs were invented by physicists, they are also of mathematical interest, being related to, among other things, knot theory and the theory of four-manifolds in algebraic topology, and to the theory of moduli spaces in algebraic geometry
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Conformal Field Theory
A conformal field theory (CFT) is a quantum field theory that is invariant under conformal transformations. In two dimensions, there is an infinite-dimensional algebra of local conformal transformations, and conformal field theories can sometimes be exactly solved or classified. Conformal field theory has important applications[1] to condensed matter physics, statistical mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and string theory. Statistical and condensed matter systems are indeed often conformally invariant at their thermodynamic or quantum critical points.Contents1 Scale invariance vs. conformal invariance 2 Dimensional considerations2.1 Two dimensions 2.2 More than two dimensions3 Conformal symmetry 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading Scale invariance vs
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Liouville Field Theory
In physics, Liouville field theory (or simply Liouville theory) is a two-dimensional conformal field theory whose classical equation of motion is a generalization of Liouville's equation. Liouville theory is defined for all complex values of the central charge c displaystyle c of its Virasoro symmetry algebra, but it is unitary only if c ∈ ( 1 , + ∞ ) displaystyle cin (1,+infty ) , and its classical limit is c → + ∞ displaystyle cto +infty . Although it is an interacting theory with a continuous spectrum, Liouville theory has been solved
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Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.[2] Classical physics
Classical physics
(the physics existing before quantum mechanics) is a set of fundamental theories which describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale
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Quantum Cosmology
Quantum cosmology
Quantum cosmology
is the attempt in theoretical physics to develop a quantum theory of the Universe. This approach attempts to answer open questions of classical physical cosmology, particularly those related to the first phases of the universe. The classical cosmology is based on Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity (GTR or simply GR). It describes the evolution of the universe very well, as long as you do not approach the Big Bang. It is the gravitational singularity and the Planck time where relativity theory fails to provide what must be demanded of a final theory of space and time
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De Broglie-Bohm Theory
The de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot wave theory, Bohmian mechanics, Bohm's interpretation, and the causal interpretation, is an interpretation of quantum mechanics. In addition to a wavefunction on the space of all possible configurations, it also postulates an actual configuration that exists even when unobserved. The evolution over time of the configuration (that is, the positions of all particles or the configuration of all fields) is defined by the wave function by a guiding equation. The evolution of the wave function over time is given by the Schrödinger equation
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Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis
The Eigenstate
Eigenstate
Thermalization Hypothesis (or ETH) is a set of ideas which purports to explain when and why an isolated quantum mechanical system can be accurately described using equilibrium statistical mechanics. In particular, it is devoted to understanding how systems which are initially prepared in far-from-equilibrium states can evolve in time to a state which appears to be in thermal equilibrium
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Quantum Field Theory In Curved Spacetime
In particle physics, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an extension of standard, Minkowski space
Minkowski space
quantum field theory to curved spacetime
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Dark Fluid
In astronomy and cosmology, dark fluid is an alternative theory to both dark matter and dark energy and attempts to explain both phenomena in a single framework.[1][2][dubious – discuss] Dark fluid
Dark fluid
proposes that dark matter and dark energy are not separate physical phenomena as previously thought, nor do they have separate origins, but that they are strongly linked together and can be considered as two facets of a single fluid. At galactic scales, the dark fluid behaves like dark matter, and at larger scales its behavior becomes similar to dark energy
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Doubly Special Relativity
Doubly special relativity[1][2][3] (DSR) – also called deformed special relativity or, by some, extra-special relativity – is a modified theory of special relativity in which there is not only an observer-independent maximum velocity (the speed of light), but an observer-independent maximum energy scale and minimum length scale (the Planck energy and Planck length).[4]Contents1 History 2 Predictions 3 de Sitter relativity 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] First attempts to modify special relativity by introducing an observer-independent length were made by Pavlopoulos (1967), who estimated this length at about 6985100000000000000♠10−15 metres.[5][6] In the context of quantum gravity,
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De Sitter Invariant Special Relativity
Invariant and invariance may refer to: Computer science[edit] Invariant (computer science), an expression whose value doesn't change during program executionLoop invariant, invariants used to prove properties of loopsA data type in method overriding that is neither covariant nor contravariant Class invariant, invariants used to constrain objects of a classMathematics[edit] Invariant (mathematics), something unaltered by a transformation, for example: taking a homotopy group functor on the category of topological spaces
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Quantum Thermodynamics
Quantum thermodynamics is the study of the relations between two independent physical theories: thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. The two independent theories address the physical phenomena of light and matter. In 1905 Einstein
Einstein
argued that the requirement of consistency between thermodynamics and electromagnetism[1] leads to the conclusion that light is quantized obtaining the relation E = h ν displaystyle E=hnu . This paper is the dawn of quantum theory. In a few decades quantum theory became established with an independent set of rules.[2] Currently quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamic laws from quantum mechanics. It differs from quantum statistical mechanics in the emphasis on dynamical processes out of equilibrium
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Black Hole Thermodynamics
In physics, black hole thermodynamics[1] is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons
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