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Kallawaya
The KALLAWAYA are an itinerant group of traditional healers living in the Andes
Andes
of Bolivia
Bolivia
. They live in the Bautista Saavedra region , a mountainous area north of La Paz
La Paz
. They are members of the Mollo culture and are direct descendants of Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
culture . According to the UNESCO
UNESCO
Safeguarding Project, the Kallawaya
Kallawaya
can be traced to the pre- Inca
Inca
period. The Kallawaya
Kallawaya
performed brain surgery as early as 700 CE and knew how to effectively prevent and treat malaria with quinine before the Europeans. They also helped to save thousands of lives during the construction of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal

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Rhea (bird)
The RHEAS /ˈriː.ə/ are large ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) in the order Rheiformes, native to South America , related to the ostrich and emu . There were formerly two, but now three recognized extant species: the greater or American rhea (Rhea americana), the lesser or Darwin\'s rhea (Rhea pennata) and the puna rhea (Rhea tarapacensis). The greater and puna rheas are currently rated as near-threatened in their native ranges, while Darwin's rhea
Darwin's rhea
is of least concern; a feral population of the greater rhea in Germany
Germany
appears to be growing
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Peru
Coordinates : 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" ANTHEM: Himno Nacional del Perú (Spanish) National Anthem of Peru NATIONAL SEAL : Gran Sello del Estado (Spanish) Great Seal of the State Location of
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Panama
Coordinates : 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80 Republic of Panama República de Panamá (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Pro Mundi Beneficio" "For the Benefit of the World" ANTHEM: Himno Istmeño (Spanish ) Hymn of the Isthmus Capital and largest city Panama City
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967°N 79.533°W / 8.967; -79.533 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish <
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Chile
Coordinates : 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71 Republic of Chile República de Chile
Chile
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish ) * (English: "By Right or Might") ANTHEM: National Anthem of Chile Location of
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Ecuador
Coordinates : 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500 REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR República del Ecuador
Ecuador
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish ) * "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin ) * "God, homeland and freedom" ANTHEM: Salve, Oh Patria (Spanish) Hail, Oh Homeland Location of
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International Folk Music Council
The INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR TRADITIONAL MUSIC (ICTM) is non-governmental organization in formal consultative relationship with UNESCO
UNESCO
, an academic organization focused on music and. Founded in London
London
on 22 September 1947, it publishes the Yearbook for Traditional Music once a year, and the Bulletin of the ICTM three times a year. Since 2013, its president has been Dr. Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco , Director of the Instituto de Etnomusicologia – Centro de Estudos em Música e Dança, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. The organization was previously known as THE INTERNATIONAL FOLK MUSIC COUNCIL (IFMC). In 1949, it helped found the UNESCO
UNESCO
International Music Council . CONTENTS * 1 Conferences * 2 Publications * 3 World Network * 4 Presidents * 5 References * 6 External links CONFERENCESICTM World Conferences have been held since 1948 and are presently biennial
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Sri Lankan Traditional Medicine
Sri Lanka has its own indigenous scheme of traditional medicine (Ayurveda ). This system has been practised for many centuries in the island nation. The Sri Lankan Ayurvedic tradition is a mixture of the Sinhala traditional medicine , Ayurveda and Siddha systems of India , Unani medicine of Greece through the Arabs , and most importantly, the Desheeya Chikitsa , which is the indigenous medicine of Sri Lanka. HISTORYSri Lanka developed its own Ayurvedic system based on a series of prescriptions handed down from generation to generation over a period of 3,000 years. The ancient kings, who were also prominent physicians, sustained its survival and longevity. King Buddhadasa (398 AD), the most influential of these physicians, wrote the Sarartha Sangrahaya , a comprehensive manuscript which Sri Lankan physicians still use today for reference. Ancient inscriptions on rock surfaces reveal that organized medical services have existed within the country for centuries
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Traditional African Medicine
TRADITIONAL AFRICAN MEDICINE is an alternative medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners , midwives, and herbalists . Practitioners of traditional African medicine claim to be able to cure various and diverse conditions such as cancers, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, cholera , most venereal diseases, epilepsy, asthma, eczema, fever, anxiety, depression, benign prostatic hyperplasia , urinary tract infections, gout, and healing of wounds and burns and even Ebola . Diagnosis is reached through spiritual means and a treatment is prescribed, usually consisting of a herbal remedy that is considered to have not only healing abilities but also symbolic and spiritual significance
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Iboga
TABERNANTHE IBOGA or simply IBOGA is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic , native to western Central Africa . Iboga stimulates the central nervous system when taken in small doses and induces visions in larger doses. In parts of Africa where the plant grows, the bark of the root is chewed for various pharmacological or ritualistic purposes. Ibogaine , the active alkaloid, is also used to treat substance abuse disorders and depression. A small amount of ibogaine, along with precursors of ibogaine, are found in Voacanga africana . Normally growing to a height of 2 m, T. iboga may eventually grow into a small tree up to 10 m tall, given the right conditions. It has small green leaves . Its flowers are white and pink, while the fruit can be either an elongated oval shape, or a round spherical shape, both having an orange colour
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Medicine In Ancient Rome
MEDICINE IN ANCIENT ROME combined various techniques using different tools, methodology, and ingredients. Roman medicine was highly influenced by Greek medicine. Greek physicians including Dioscorides and Galen
Galen
practiced medicine and recorded their discoveries in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. These two physicians had knowledge of hundreds of herbal, among other, medicines. Ancient Roman medicine was divided into specializations such as ophthalmology and urology . A variety of surgical procedures were carried out using many different instruments including forceps , scalpels and catheters
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Irani Traditional Medicine
IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE, also called PERSIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE (Persian : طب سنتی‌ ایرانی tebbe sonnati irāni) is one of famous forms of traditional medicine which is grounded in the four humours concept: Phlegm (Balgham), Blood (Dam), Yellow bile (Ṣafrā') and Black bile (Saudā'). Some traditional medicine forms are in this base. Yunani and Graeco-Arabic are the most famous of that. It is based on the teachings of Greek physician Hippocrates and Roman physician Galen , and developed by Rhazes , Avicenna (Ibn Sena) into an elaborate medical system. The old medical system was developed by a number of nations. Iranian Traditional Medicine, although often presumed as part of Yunani medicine because of a great overlap between these two, still is a separate tradition with roots further in the ancient Iranian and Indian past
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Thai Traditional Medicine
TRADITIONAL THAI MEDICINE (TTM) is a system of methods and practices, such as herbal medicine, bodywork practices, and spiritual healing that is indigenous to the region currently known as Thailand . While not all Buddhist medicine is Thai, Thai medicine is considered Buddhist medicine. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions * 3 Branches * 4 Licensing * 5 References HISTORYTraditional Thai medicine stems from pre-history indigenous regional practices with a strong animistic foundation, animistic traditions of the Mon and Khmer peoples who occupied the region prior to the migration of the T\'ai peoples , T'ai medicine and animistic knowledge, Indian medical knowledge (arriving pre-Ayurveda ) coming through the Khmer peoples, Buddhist medical knowledge via the Mon peoples, and Chinese medical knowledge (arriving pre-TCM ) with the migration of the T'ais who came largely from southern China
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Argentina
Coordinates : 34°S 64°W / 34°S 64°W / -34; -64 Argentine Republic República Argentina
Argentina
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * " En unión y libertad " * ("In Unity and Freedom") ANTHEM: * Himno Nacional Argentino * ("Argentine National Anthem") *
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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