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Kaliningrad Oblast
KALININGRAD OBLAST (Russian : Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. As an oblast , its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad , formerly known as Königsberg
Königsberg
. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census , it had a population of 941,873. The oblast is an exclave so visa-free travel to the main part of Russia
Russia
is only possible by sea or air. The territory was formerly part of East Prussia
East Prussia

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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Ethnic Germans
GERMAN DIASPORA (German : DEUTSCHSTäMMIGE, historically/national social terminology also VOLKSDEUTSCHE) are ethnic Germans
Germans
and their descendants living outside Germany
Germany
. Outside Europe
Europe
, descendants of Germans
Germans
have largely assimilated into their host societies, including adopting the local language and adapting their German family names , e.g., through Anglicisation
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates : 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here. For the 1923 book, see Das Dritte Reich
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Types Of Inhabited Localities In Russia
The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries. CONTENTS* 1 Modern classification in Russia * 1.1 Urban localities * 1.2 Rural localities * 2 Historical terms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links MODERN CLASSIFICATION IN RUSSIADuring the Soviet time, each of the republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, including the Russian SFSR , had its own legislative documents dealing with classification of inhabited localities. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the task of developing and maintaining such classification in Russia was delegated to the federal subjects
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Administrative Center
An ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRE is a seat of regional administration or local government , or a county town , or the place where the central administration of a commune is located. In countries which have French as one of their administrative languages (such as Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland or many African countries) and in some other countries (such as Italy, cf. cognate capoluogo), a CHEF-LIEU (French pronunciation: ​ , plural form chefs-lieux (literally "chief place" or "head place"), is a town or city that is pre-eminent from an administrative perspective. The ‘f’ in chef-lieu is pronounced, in contrast to chef-d'oeuvre where it is mute
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Constitution Of Russia
The current CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (Russian : Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii; pronounced ) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia
Russia
's constitution came into force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government . The current Constitution
Constitution
is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution
Constitution
of 1936 . The 1993 Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants. Sergei Alexeyev , Sergey Shakhray , and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as co-authors of the constitution
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Oblast
An OBLAST is a type of administrative division of Belarus
Belarus
, Bulgaria , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes . The term is analogous to "state " or "province ". Official terms in successor states of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
differ, but some still use a cognate of the Russian term, e.g. VOBLAST (VOBLASTS, VOBLASTS\', ) is used for regions of Belarus
Belarus
, and OBLYS (plural: oblystar) for regions of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English , but it is, nevertheless, often translated as "area ", "zone", "province ", or "region"
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Russian Census (2010)
The RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 2010 (Russian : Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25
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USSR
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Baltic Language
The BALTIC LANGUAGES belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Baltic languages
Baltic languages
are spoken by the Balts
Balts
, mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe
Northern Europe
. Scholars usually regard them as a single language family divided into two groups: WESTERN BALTIC (containing only extinct languages ) and EASTERN BALTIC (containing two living languages , Lithuanian and Latvian ). The range of the Eastern Baltic linguistic influence once possibly reached as far as the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
, but this hypothesis has been questioned. Old Prussian
Old Prussian
, a Western Baltic language that became extinct in the 18th century, ranks as the most archaic of the Baltic languages
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Germanisation
GERMANISATION (also spelled GERMANIZATION) refers to the spread of the German language
German language
, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, at a period when conservatism and nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics , Germanisation
Germanisation
also occurs when a word from the German language
German language
is adopted into a foreign language
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