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Kabul-Kandahar Highway
The KABUL–KANDAHAR HIGHWAY is a 483-kilometer (300 mi) road linking Afghanistan
Afghanistan
's two largest cities, Kabul
Kabul
and Kandahar
Kandahar
. This highway is a key portion of Afghanistan's national road system or "Ring Road" . The entire highway from Kandahar
Kandahar
to Kabul
Kabul
is on flat surface, with no mountain passes. Approximately 35 percent of Afghanistan's population lives within 50 kilometers of the Kabul
Kabul
to Kandahar
Kandahar
portion of the Ring Road. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Route * 3 Deaths * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWThe Kabul- Kandahar
Kandahar
highway was in major disrepair due to over two decades of war and neglect
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Durrani Empire
The DURRANI EMPIRE ( Pashto
Pashto
: د درانیانو واکمني‎), also called the AFGHAN EMPIRE, was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani with its capitals at Kandahar
Kandahar
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Peshawar
Peshawar
, Pakistan
Pakistan
. At its maximum extent, the empire covered the nearly-entire modern states of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran
Iran
, eastern Turkmenistan , northwestern India including the Kashmir region. It is recognized as one of the most powerful Muslim empires. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, the region of Kandahar
Kandahar
was claimed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. From there he began conquering Ghazni followed by Kabul
Kabul

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Hotak Dynasty
The HOTAK DYNASTY or the HOTAKI DYNASTY was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in Kandahar
Kandahar
. It lasted until 1738 when the founder of the Afsharid dynasty , Nader Shah Afshar
Nader Shah Afshar
, defeated Hussain Hotak during the long siege of Kandahar
Kandahar
, and started the reestablishment of Iranian suzerainty over all regions lost decades before against the Iranian archrival, the Ottomans
Ottomans
, and the Russians. At its peak, the Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
ruled very briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan , western Pakistan
Pakistan
, and large parts of Iran
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Third Battle Of Panipat
Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
SUPPORTED BY: * Nawabs of Oudh * Rohillas Maratha Empire
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Battle Of Jamrud
The BATTLE OF JAMRUD was fought between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
on 30 April 1837. The Sikhs were building up towards crossing the Khyber pass
Khyber pass
in order to invade Jalalabad
Jalalabad
. This led Afghan forces to confront the Sikh
Sikh
forces at Jamrud . The death of Sikh
Sikh
General Hari Singh Nalwa limited the Khyber pass
Khyber pass
as the western extent of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire
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Afghan–Sikh Wars
The AFGHAN–SIKH WARS were a series of wars between the Afghan Pashtuns Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
, and the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
. The conflict had its origins stemming from the days of the Dal Khalsa
Khalsa
. CONTENTS * 1 Battle of Attock
Battle of Attock
* 2 Battle of Multan
Battle of Multan
* 3 Battle of Shopian
Battle of Shopian
* 4 Battle of Nowshera * 5 Battle of Jamrud
Battle of Jamrud
* 6 See also * 7 References BATTLE OF ATTOCKThis war started with the Battle of Attock
Battle of Attock
, also known as the Battle of Chuch or the Battle of Haidru, this was the first significant victory of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
over Afghans
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Mongol Invasion Of Central Asia
The MONGOL INVASION OF CENTRAL ASIA occurred after the unification of the Mongol
Mongol
and Turkic tribes on the Mongolian plateau in 1206. It was finally complete when Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
conquered the Khwarizmian Empire in 1221. CONTENTS * 1 Siberia (1207-1209) * 2 Uyghurs, Qarluqs and Qara Khitai (1216-1218) * 3 Khwarezmia (1219-1221) * 4 References SIBERIA (1207-1209) Main article: History of Siberia § Mongol
Mongol
conquest The conquest of the forest peoples of Siberia was carried out in 1207 by Genghis' eldest son, Jochi
Jochi
. Most of the tribes submitted with little resistance, with the exception of the Yenisei Kyrgyz , who had defeated an expeditionary force in 1204, and took several years to subdue. Tuva was conquered in 1207
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History Of Arabs In Afghanistan
The HISTORY OF ARABS IN AFGHANISTAN spans over one millennium , from the 11th century Islamic conquest when Arab ghazis arrived with their Islamic mission until recently when others from the Arab world arrived to defend fellow Muslims from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
followed by NATO forces . Most of the early Arabs
Arabs
gradually lost their Arabic hegemony and ultimately mixed with the local population , though they are still considered a cognizably distinct ethnic group according to the Constitution of Afghanistan
Constitution of Afghanistan
and the Afghan National Anthem
Afghan National Anthem
. Afghans who carry Sayed or Quraishi in their names usually claim Arab ancestry
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Indus Valley Civilisation
The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC), or HARAPPAN CIVILISATION, was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilisation (3300–1300 BCE
BCE
; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia
South Asia
, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwest India
India
. Along with Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, it was one of three early cradles of civilisations of the Old World
Old World
, and of the three, the most widespread
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Maurya Empire
The MAURYA EMPIRE was a geographically extensive Iron Age
Iron Age
historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between c. 322 and 187 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent , the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna
Patna
). The empire was the largest to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka
Ashoka

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Greater Khorasan
KHORASAN ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
: , Persian : خراسان‎‎ Xorāsān/Xorâsân listen (help ·info )) is a historical region lying in the northeast of Persia
Persia
. However, in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times , the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia
Persia
, so-called Jibal or what was subsequently termed 'Irak \'Adjami , as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khurasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sind
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Islamic Conquest Of Afghanistan
The ISLAMIC CONQUEST OF AFGHANISTAN (642–870) began in the middle of the 7th century after the Islamic conquest of Persia
Islamic conquest of Persia
was completed, when Arab Muslims defeated the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
at the battles of Walaja , al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand . The Muslim
Muslim
Arabs then began to move towards the lands east of Persia
Persia
and in 652 captured the city, Herat
Herat
. By 667, the Afghan area was under invasion by the Arabs but in 683 Kabul
Kabul
and other parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
fought with resistance and completely routed the invading army which was led by the Governor of Seistan
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First Anglo-Afghan War
Afghan victory * British conquer Kabul, imprison Dost Mohammad and install Shah Shujah (August 1839) * Dost Mohammad escapes, but is recaptured and deported (1840) * Afghan uprisings and harsh winters force British withdrawal , Shah Shujah killed (1841–1842) * Dost Mohammad reinstalled to the throne (1843) BELLIGERENTS Emirate of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
British Empire<
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Second Anglo-Afghan War
British victory * British withdrawal from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after achieving the desired political goals through the Treaty of Gandamak * Annexation of Afghanistan's frontier tribal areas into British India * Afghanistan
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Soviet–Afghan War
SUNNI MUJAHIDEEN : * Jamiat-e Islami * Shura-e Nazar * Gulbuddin faction * Maktab al-Khadamat * Khalis faction * Ittehad i-Islami * IRM * NLF * NIFA Supported by: * Pakistan
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Democratic Republic Of Afghanistan
socialist republic (1978-1987) Unitary Islamic socialist dominant-party republic (1987-1992) See Political system below GENERAL SECRETARY • 1978–1979 Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki
(first) • 1986–1992 Mohammad Najibullah (last) HEAD OF STATE • 1978–1979
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