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KOI-7
KOI-7 (КОИ-7) is a 7-bit character encoding, designed to cover Russian, which uses the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet. In Russian, KOI-7 stands for Kod Obmena Informatsiey, 7 bit (Код Обмена Информацией, 7 бит) which means "Code for Information Exchange, 7 bit".[1] It was first standardized in GOST 13052-67 (with the 2nd revision GOST 13052-74 / ST SEV 356-76) and GOST 27463-87 / ST SEV 356-86. Shift Out
Shift Out
(SO) and Shift In
Shift In
(SI) control characters are used in KOI-7, where SO starts printing Russian letters ( KOI-7 N1), and SI starts printing Latin letters again ( KOI-7 N0), or for lowercase and uppercase switching
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Horizontal Tabulation
The tab key Tab ↹ (abbreviation of tabulator key[1] or tabular key[2]) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.Contents1 History 2 Modern usage 3 Tab characters3.1 Tab-separated values (TSV) 3.2 HTML 3.3 Unicode4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]The tab rack from a Flexowriter
Flexowriter
model 2201. On this machine, the tab-rack is removable for easy reconfiguration.The word tab derives from the word tabulate, which means "to arrange data in a tabular, or table, form." When a person wanted to type a table (of numbers or text) on a typewriter, there was a lot of time-consuming and repetitive use of the space bar and backspace key. To simplify this, a horizontal bar was placed in the mechanism called the tabulator rack. Pressing the tab key would advance the carriage to the next tabulator stop
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Iron Curtain
The Iron Curtain
Curtain
was the name for the boundary dividing Europe
Europe
into two separate areas from the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945 until the end of the Cold War
Cold War
in 1991. The term symbolizes the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and non-Soviet-controlled areas. On the east side of the Iron Curtain
Curtain
were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union
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Null Character
The null character (also null terminator or null byte), abbreviated NUL, is a control character with the value zero.[1][2] It is present in many character sets, including ISO/IEC 646
ISO/IEC 646
(or ASCII), the C0 control code, the Universal Character Set (or Unicode), and EBCDIC. It is available in nearly all mainstream programming languages.[3] The original meaning of this character was like NOP—when sent to a printer or a terminal, it does nothing (some terminals, however, incorrectly display it as space)
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End Of Text
The End-of-Text character (ETX) (hex value of 0x03, often displayed as ^C) is an ASCII
ASCII
control character used to inform the receiving computer that the end of the data stream has been reached. This may or may not be an indication that all of the data has been received. It is often used as a "break" character (Control-C) to interrupt a program or process. In TOPS-20, it was used to gain the system's attention before logging in. It is often used in conjunction with Start of Text (STX) and Data Link Escape (DLE) e.g
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End Of Transmission Character
In telecommunication, an End-of-Transmission character (EOT) is a transmission control character. Its intended use is to indicate the conclusion of a transmission that may have included one or more texts and any associated message headings.[1] An EOT is often used to initiate other functions, such as releasing circuits, disconnecting terminals, or placing receive terminals in a standby condition.[1] Its most common use today is to cause a Unix terminal driver to signal end of file and thus exit programs that are awaiting input. In ASCII
ASCII
and Unicode, the character is encoded at U+0004 <control-0004>. It can be referred to as Ctrl+D, ^D in caret notation
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Enquiry Character
In computer communications, enquiry is a transmission-control character that requests a response from the receiving station[1] with which a connection has been set up.[2] It represents a signal intended to trigger a response at the receiving end, to see if it is still present. The response, an answer-back code to the terminal that transmitted the WRU (who are you) signal, may include station identification, the type of equipment in service, and the status of the remote station. Teletype Model 33
Teletype Model 33
answer-back drum (brown, lower center left) for coding inquiry response message.Some teleprinters had a "programmable" drum, which could hold a 20 or 22 character message. The message was encoded on the drum by breaking tabs off the drum
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Acknowledge Character
In data networking, telecommunications, and computer buses, an acknowledgement (ACK) is a signal passed between communicating processes, computers, or devices to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of message, as part of a communications protocol. The negative-acknowledgement (NAK or NACK[1]) signal is sent to reject a previously received message, or to indicate some kind of error. Acknowledgements and negative acknowledgements inform a sender of the receiver's state so that it can adjust its own state accordingly.Contents1 Acknowledgement characters 2 Protocol usage 3 Hardware acknowledgement 4 See also 5 ReferencesAcknowledgement characters[edit] When the ASCII
ASCII
code is used to communicate between computer terminals, each terminal can send an enquiry character to request the condition of the other. The receiver of this character can respond with ACK (0000110) to indicate that it is operating normally, or NAK (0010101) to indicate an error condition
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Bell Character
A bell code (sometimes bell character) is a device control code originally sent to ring a small electromechanical bell on tickers and other teleprinters and teletypewriters to alert operators at the other end of the line, often of an incoming message. Though tickers punched the bell codes into their tapes,[1] printers generally do not print a character when the bell code is received. Bell codes are usually represented by the label "BEL". They have been used since 1870 (initially in Baudot code).[citation needed] To maintain backward compatibility, video display terminals (VDTs) that replaced teletypewriters included speakers or buzzers to perform the same function, as did the personal computers that followed
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Backspace
Backspace
Backspace
is the keyboard key that originally pushed the typewriter carriage one position backwards, and in modern computer systems moves the display cursor one position backwards,[note 1] deletes the character at that position, and shifts back the text after that position by one position.Contents1 Typewriter 2 Computers2.1 Common use 2.2 ^H 2.3 ^W and ^U3 Other meanings 4 Notes 5 ReferencesTypewriter[edit] In some[note 2] typewriters, a typist would, for example, type a lowercase letter A with acute accent (á) by typing a lowercase letter A, backspace, and then the acute accent key. This technique (also known as overstrike) is the basis for such spacing modifiers in computer character sets such as the ASCII
ASCII
caret (^, for the circumflex accent)
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Line Feed
Newline
Newline
(frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character in a character encoding specification, like e.g. ASCII. It is used to signify the end of a line of text and the start of a new one. Text editors set this special character when pressing the Enter key. When displaying (or printing) a text file, this control character causes the text editor to show the following characters in a new line.Contents1 Wall of text 2 Representations in different character encoding specifications2.1 Unicode 2.2 Escape sequences 2.3 In programming languages3 Frequent issues3.1 Conversion utilities4 History 5 Reverse and partial line feeds 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksWall of text[edit] The concepts of line feed (LF) and carriage return (CR) are closely associated, and can be considered either separately or together
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Dollar Sign
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​ ¢
¢
​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe dollar sign ($ or ) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world. The symbol can interchangeably have one or two vertical strokes
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Vertical Tabulation
The tab key Tab ↹ (abbreviation of tabulator key[1] or tabular key[2]) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.Contents1 History 2 Modern usage 3 Tab characters3.1 Tab-separated values (TSV) 3.2 HTML 3.3 Unicode4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]The tab rack from a Flexowriter
Flexowriter
model 2201. On this machine, the tab-rack is removable for easy reconfiguration.The word tab derives from the word tabulate, which means "to arrange data in a tabular, or table, form." When a person wanted to type a table (of numbers or text) on a typewriter, there was a lot of time-consuming and repetitive use of the space bar and backspace key. To simplify this, a horizontal bar was placed in the mechanism called the tabulator rack. Pressing the tab key would advance the carriage to the next tabulator stop
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Form Feed
A page break is a marker in an electronic document that tells the document interpreter that the content which follows is part of a new page. A page break causes a form feed to be sent to the printer during spooling of the document to the printer. Thus it is one of the elements that contributes to pagination.Contents1 Form feed 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksForm feed[edit] Form feed is a page-breaking ASCII
ASCII
control character. It forces the printer to eject the current page and to continue printing at the top of another. Often, it will also cause a carriage return. The form feed character code is defined as 12 (0xC in hexadecimal), and may be represented as control+L or ^L. In a related use, control+L can be used to clear the screen in Unix
Unix
shells such as bash. In the C programming language (and other languages derived from C), the form feed character is represented as 'f'
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Carriage Return
A carriage return, sometimes known as a cartridge return and often shortened to CR, <CR> or return, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text. It is closely associated with the line feed and newline concepts, although it can be considered separately in its own right.Contents1 Typewriters 2 Computers 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypewriters[edit] Originally, the term "carriage return" referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter. For machines where the type element was fixed and the paper held in a moving carriage, this lever was operated after typing a line of text to cause the carriage to return to the far right so the type element would be aligned to the left side of the paper. The lever would also usually feed the paper to advance to the next line. Many electric typewriters such as IBM Electric or Underwood Electric made carriage return to be another key on the keyboard instead of a lever
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