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KEGG
KEGG
KEGG
(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Crude Drug
Crude drugs are vegetable or animal drugs that contain natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying. The term natural substances refers to those substances found in nature that have not had man-made changes made in their molecular structure
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Biological System
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities. As biological organization spans several scales, examples of biological systems are populations of organisms, or on the organ- and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, the nervous system, etc. On the micro to the nanoscopic scale, examples of biological systems are cells, organelles, macromolecular complexes and regulatory pathways. A biological system is not to be confused with a living system, which is commonly referred to as life. For further information see e.g. definition of life or synthetic biology.Contents1 Organ and tissue systems 2 History 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesOrgan and tissue systems[edit]An example of a system: The brain, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and the nerves are the four basic components of the nervous system.These specific systems are widely studied in human anatomy
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Small Molecule
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons[1]) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm. Most drugs are small molecules. Larger structures such as nucleic acids and proteins, and many polysaccharides are not small molecules, although their constituent monomers (ribo- or deoxyribonucleotides, amino acids, and monosaccharides, respectively) are often considered small molecules. Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new therapeutic agents. Some can inhibit a specific function of a protein or disrupt protein–protein interactions.[2] Pharmacology
Pharmacology
usually restricts the term "small molecule" to molecules that bind specific biological macromolecules and acts as an effector, altering the activity or function of the target
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Ortholog
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa. A common example of homologous structures is the forelimbs of vertebrates, where the wings of bats, the arms of primates, the front flippers of whales and the forelegs of dogs and horses are all derived from the same ancestral tetrapod structure. Evolutionary biology
Evolutionary biology
explains homologous structures adapted to different purposes as the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor. Homology was explained by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in 1859, but had been observed before this, from Aristotle onwards, and it was explicitly analysed by Pierre Belon in 1555
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Glycan
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC
IUPAC
as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".[1] However, in practice the term glycan may also be used to refer to the carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate, such as a glycoprotein, glycolipid, or a proteoglycan, even if the carbohydrate is only an oligosaccharide.[2] Glycans usually consist solely of O-glycosidic linkages of monosaccharides. For example, cellulose is a glycan (or, to be more specific, a glucan) composed of β-1,4-linked D-glucose, and chitin is a glycan composed of β-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
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Chemical Reaction
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.[1] Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to the elements present), and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur. The substance (or substances) initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents
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Enzyme Nomenclature
The Enzyme
Enzyme
Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.[1] As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme. Strictly speaking, EC numbers do not specify enzymes, but enzyme-catalyzed reactions
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Approved Drugs
An approved drug is a preparation that has been validated for a therapeutic use by a ruling authority of a government. In the United States, the FDA approves drugs. Before a drug can be prescribed, it must undergo the FDA's approval process. Drug companies seeking to sell a drug in the United States
United States
must first test it. The company then sends the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)[1] evidence from these tests to prove the drug is safe and effective for its intended use. A team of CDER physicians, statisticians, chemists, pharmacologists, and other scientists reviews the company's data and proposed labeling. If this independent and unbiased review establishes that a drug's health benefits outweigh its known risks, the drug is approved for sale
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Transcription (genetics)
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA
DNA
is copied into RNA
RNA
(especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA
RNA
polymerase. Both DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA
DNA
sequence is read by an RNA
RNA
polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA
RNA
strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: RNA
RNA
polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA
RNA
polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA
DNA
helix
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Gene
A gene is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Translation (biology)
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process transcription of DNA
DNA
to RNA
RNA
in the cell's nucleus. The entire process is called gene expression. In translation, messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) is decoded in a ribosome, outside the nucleus, to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary t RNA
RNA
anticodon sequences to m RNA
RNA
codons. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the m RNA
RNA
passes through and is "read" by the ribosome. Translation proceeds in three phases:Initiation: The ribosome assembles around the target mRNA
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DNA Replication
In molecular biology, DNA
DNA
replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA
DNA
from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA
DNA
essential. DNA
DNA
is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. During replication, these strands are separated
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