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Jury
A JURY is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court , or to set a penalty or judgment . Modern juries tend to be found in courts to ascertain the guilt, or lack thereof, in a crime. In Anglophone jurisdictions, the verdict may be guilty or not guilty (not proven ; a verdict of acquittal, based on the state's failure to prove guilt rather than any proof of innocence, is also available in Scotland
Scotland
). The old institution of grand juries still exists in some places, particularly the United States
United States
, to investigate whether enough evidence of a crime exists to bring someone to trial. The modern criminal court jury arrangement has evolved out of the medieval juries in England. Members were supposed to inform themselves of crimes and then of the details of the crimes
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Government Accountability Office
The GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing , evaluation , and investigative services for the United States Congress
United States Congress
. It is the supreme audit institution of the federal government of the United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Reports * 2.1 Financial Statements of the U.S. government * 2.2 U.S. Public Debt * 2.3 Quinquennial Strategic Plan * 3 GAO and Technology Assessment * 4 See also * 4.1 Offices * 4.2 Non-governmental organizations
Non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) * 4.3 Audit * 4.4 International * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe GAO was established as the GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921
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Facilitator
A FACILITATOR is someone who engages in the activity of facilitation . They help a group of people understand their common objectives and assists them to plan how to achieve these objectives; in doing so, the facilitator remains "neutral" meaning he/she does not take a particular position in the discussion. Some facilitator tools will try to assist the group in achieving a consensus on any disagreements that preexist or emerge in the meeting so that it has a strong basis for future action
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Germanic Peoples
The GERMANIC PEOPLES (also called Teutonic , Suebian , or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age . The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower , Upper , and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes
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Question Of Law
In law , a QUESTION OF LAW, also known as a POINT OF LAW, is a question that must be answered by applying relevant legal principles to interpretation of the law. Such a question is distinct from a QUESTION OF FACT, which must be answered by reference to facts and evidence as well inferences arising from those facts. Answers to questions of law are generally expressed in terms of broad legal principles and can be applied to many situations rather than be dependent on particular circumstances or factual situations. An answer to a question of law as applied to the particular facts of a case is often referred to as a "conclusion of law." In several civil law jurisdictions, the highest courts consider questions of fact settled by the lower court and will only consider questions of law. They thus may refer a case back to a lower court to re-apply the law and answer any fact-based evaluations based on their answer on the application of the law
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Evidence
EVIDENCE, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion . This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other extreme is evidence that is merely consistent with an assertion but does not rule out other, contradictory assertions, as in circumstantial evidence . In law , rules of evidence govern the types of evidence that are admissible in a legal proceeding. Types of legal evidence include testimony , documentary evidence , and physical evidence . The parts of a legal case which are not in controversy are known, in general, as the "facts of the case." Beyond any facts that are undisputed, a judge or jury is usually tasked with being a trier of fact for the other issues of a case. Evidence
Evidence
and rules are used to decide questions of fact that are disputed, some of which may be determined by the legal burden of proof relevant to the case
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Supermajority
A SUPERMAJORITY, or a QUALIFIED MAJORITY, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one half used for majority . Related concepts regarding alternatives to the majority vote requirement include a MAJORITY OF THE ENTIRE MEMBERSHIP and a MAJORITY OF THE FIXED MEMBERSHIP. A supermajority can also be specified based on the entire membership or fixed membership rather than on those present and voting. Parliamentary procedure
Parliamentary procedure
requires that any action of a deliberative assembly that may alter the rights of a minority has a supermajority requirement, such as a two-thirds vote. Changes to constitutions , especially those with entrenched clauses , commonly require supermajority support in a legislature
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Defendant
A DEFENDANT is a person accused of a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case . Terminology varies from one jurisdiction to another. For example, Scots law does not use the term "defendant"; the terms "accused" or "panel" are used instead in criminal proceedings, and "defender" in civil proceedings. CONTENTS * 1 Criminal defendants * 2 Civil defendants * 3 England and Wales * 4 See also * 5 References CRIMINAL DEFENDANTSIn a criminal trial, a defendant is a person accused (charged ) of committing an offense (a crime; an act defined as punishable under criminal law ). The other party to a criminal trial is usually a public prosecutor , but in some jurisdictions, private prosecutions are allowed. Criminal defendants are often taken into custody by police and brought before a court under an arrest warrant
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Plaintiff
A PLAINTIFF (Π in legal shorthand ) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court . By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy , and if successful, the court will issue judgment in favor of the plaintiff and make the appropriate court order (e.g., an order for damages ). "Plaintiff" is the term used in civil cases in most English-speaking jurisdictions, the notable exception being England and Wales
England and Wales
, where a plaintiff has, since the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules in 1999, been known as a "CLAIMANT", but that term also has other meanings. In criminal cases, the prosecutor brings the case against the defendant, but the key complaining party is often called the "COMPLAINANT". In some jurisdictions the commencement of a lawsuit is done by filing a summons , claim form or a complaint
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Judgment (law)
In law , a JUDGMENT is a decision of a court regarding the rights and liabilities of parties in a legal action or proceeding. Judgments also generally provide the court's explanation of why it has chosen to make a particular court order . The phrase "reasons for judgment" is often used interchangeably with "judgment," although the former refers to the court's justification of its judgment while the latter refers to the final court order regarding the rights and liabilities of the parties. As the main legal systems of the world recognize either a common law, statutory, or constitutional duty to provide reasons for a judgment, drawing a distinction between "judgment" and "reasons for judgment" may be unnecessary in most circumstances
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Coroner
A CORONER is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction . A coroner may also conduct or order an inquest into the manner or cause of death , and investigate or confirm the identity of an unknown person who has been found dead within the coroner's jurisdiction. In England , where the role originated, a coroner also deals with treasure trove cases. In medieval times, English coroners were Crown officials who held financial powers and conducted some judicial investigations in order to counterbalance the power of sheriffs . The word coroner derives from the same source as the word crown , and denotes an officer of The Crown . The Spanish etymological cognate for a crown officer, coronel, designates a colonel
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Pershing County, Nevada
PERSHING COUNTY is a county in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Nevada
Nevada
. As of the 2010 census , the population was 6,753. Its county seat is Lovelock . The county was named after army general John J. Pershing (1860–1948). It was formed from Humboldt County in 1919, and the last county to be established in Nevada. The Black Rock Desert , location for the annual Burning Man festival, is partially in the county. The county is listed as Nevada
Nevada
Historical Marker 17. The marker is at the courthouse in Lovelock
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The Juror
THE JUROR is a 1996 American crime thriller drama film based on the 1995 novel by George Dawes Green . It was directed by Brian Gibson and stars Demi Moore
Demi Moore
as a single mother picked for jury duty for a mafia trial and Alec Baldwin
Alec Baldwin
as a mobster sent to intimidate her. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Reception * 4 References * 5 External links PLOTAnnie Laird ( Demi Moore
Demi Moore
) is a sculptor who lives in New York with her son Oliver ( Joseph Gordon-Levitt ); she works a day job as a data entry clerk . Annie is selected to be a juror in the trial of mob boss Louie Boffano ( Tony Lo Bianco ), who is accused of ordering the murder of Salvatore Riggio
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Norman Conquest
The NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman , Breton , and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy , later styled as William the Conqueror . William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor , who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson . The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford , but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north
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Henry II Of England
HENRY II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as HENRY CURTMANTLE (French : Court-manteau), HENRY FITZEMPRESS or HENRY PLANTAGENET, ruled as Count of Anjou
Count of Anjou
, Count of Maine , Duke of Normandy , Duke of Aquitaine , Count of Nantes , King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland ; at various times, he also controlled Wales
Wales
, Scotland
Scotland
and Brittany . Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda , daughter of Henry I of England . He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England , then occupied by Stephen of Blois , and was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine , whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled
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