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Judo
JUDO (柔道, jūdō, meaning "gentle way") was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎). It is generally categorized as a modern martial art which later evolved into a combat and Olympic sport. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin , or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke . Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata , 形) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori , 乱取り). A judo practitioner is called a JUDOKA. The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū (古流, traditional schools)
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
and resulting interpreted philosophies . Buddhism originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages
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Hiyoshi Shrine
HIYOSHI TAISHA (日吉大社, the same characters can be pronounced as Hie Taisha) is a Shinto shrine located in Ōtsu, Shiga , Japan . This shrine is one of the Twenty-Two Shrines . HIYOSHI SHRINE (日吉大社, Hiyoshi taisha), also known as HIYOSHI JINJA (日吉神社) or HIE JINJA. The West Hall of Worship (西本宮,, nishi hon-gū) and the East Hall of Worship (東本宮,, higashi hon-gū) have been designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs as National Treasures in the category shrines . This shrine heads the seventh largest shrine network in Japan, at about 4,000 shrines. CONTENTS * 1 Enshrined gods * 2 History * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ENSHRINED GODS * Ōnamuchi * Ōyamakui HISTORYHiyoshi Taisha was first recorded in Kojiki , written in the 8th century. In the Middle Ages , the Enryaku-ji temple influenced the shrine to include some Buddhist essence
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Pedagogy
PEDAGOGY is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching. Pedagogy
Pedagogy
informs teaching strategies, teacher actions, and teacher judgments and decisions by taking into consideration theories of learning , understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Pedagogy
Pedagogy
includes how the teacher interacts with students and the social and intellectual environment the teacher seeks to establish. Spanning a broad range of practice, its aims range from furthering liberal education (the general development of human potential) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills). Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic schools of thought
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Shiga Prefecture
SHIGA PREFECTURE (滋賀県, Shiga-ken) is a prefecture of Japan
Japan
, which forms part of the Kansai region
Kansai region
in the western part of Honshu island. It encircles Lake Biwa
Lake Biwa
, the largest freshwater lake in Japan. The capital is Ōtsu
Ōtsu

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Shinto
SHINTO (神道, Shintō) or KAMI-NO-MICHI (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan
Japan
that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently in order to establish a connection between present-day Japan
Japan
and its ancient past. Shinto
Shinto
practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified religion, but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology . Shinto
Shinto
today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of 'spirits ', 'essences ' (kami ), suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals , and applies as well to various sectarian organizations
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Polymath
A POLYMATH (Greek : πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the 17th century; the related term, POLYHISTOR, is an ancient term with similar meaning. Polymaths include the great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance , the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will". Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism , that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible
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Japanese Calligraphy
JAPANESE CALLIGRAPHY (書道, shodō) is a form of calligraphy , or artistic writing , of the Japanese language
Japanese language
. For a long time, the most esteemed calligrapher in Japan
Japan
had been Wang Xizhi , a Chinese calligrapher in the 4th century, but after the invention of Hiragana and Katakana
Katakana
, the Japanese unique syllabaries , the distinctive Japanese writing system
Japanese writing system
developed and calligraphers produced styles intrinsic to Japan. The term shodō (書道) is likely derived from Chinese origin as it is widely used to describe the art of Chinese calligraphy during the Chinese Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
period
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Shiba, Tokyo
SHIBA (芝) is an area of Minato ward in Tokyo , Japan and one of districts in the Shiba area. CONTENTS * 1 Shiba area * 2 Shiba area (administrative) * 3 Shiba district * 3.1 Economy * 3.2 Education * 3.3 Embassies * 4 References SHIBA AREAShiba was a ward of Tokyo City from 1878 to 1947. It was merged with Akasaka and Azabu wards to form Minato ward on March 15, 1947. The Shiba area (芝地域) is located in the eastern and southern parts of Minato ward and consisting of a number of districts including Atago , Kaigan, Kōnan, Shiba, Shiba-kōen , Shibaura , Shiba-daimon, Shirokane , Shirokanedai , Shinbashi , Daiba , Takanawa , Toranomon , Nishi-Shinbashi , Hamamatsuchō , Higashi-Shinbashi (aka Shiodome ) and Mita . The main office of Minato ward and Zōjō-ji temple, the Great Main Temple of the Chinzai sect of Shingon Buddhism, are located in Shiba-kōen
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Japanese People
3,456 note LANGUAGES Japanese , Portuguese , English RELIGION Predominantly Mahayana
Mahayana
( Buddhism
Buddhism
in Japan
Japan
) and Shinto
Shinto
Minority Japanese new religions , Christianity
Christianity
, other religions ------------------------- ^ note: The population of naturalized Japanese people
Japanese people
and their descendants is unknown. Only the number of the permanent residents with Japanese nationality is shown. JAPANESE PEOPLE (Japanese : 日本人, Hepburn : Nihonjin) are a nation and ethnic group native to Japan
Japan
. Japanese people
Japanese people
make up 98.5% of the total population of their country. Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan
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Tokugawa Shogunate
The TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE, also known as the TOKUGAWA BAKUFU (徳川幕府) and the EDO BAKUFU (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868. The head of government was the shogun , and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan . The Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
ruled from Edo
Edo
Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo
Edo
period . This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世))
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Taitō, Tokyo
TAITō (台東区, Taitō-ku) is a special ward located in Tokyo Metropolis , Japan
Japan
. In English, it is known as TAITO CITY. As of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 186,276 and a population density of 18,420 persons per km². The total area is 10.11 km². This makes Taito
Taito
ward the smallest of Tokyo's wards in area, and third smallest in population. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Landmarks * 3.1 Districts * 3.2 Temples and shrines * 3.3 Parks * 3.4 Museums and zoos * 3.5 Entertainment * 4 Education * 4.1 Colleges and universities * 4.2 Primary and secondary schools * 4.3 Public libraries * 4.4 Other * 5 Economy * 5.1 Retail * 5.2 Other * 6 Events * 7 Transportation * 7.1 Rail * 7.2 Highways * 8 Sports and recreation * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYThe ward was founded on March 15, 1947
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Meiji Restoration
The MEIJI RESTORATION (明治維新, Meiji Ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji . Although there were Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath . The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period
Edo period
(often called the Late Tokugawa shogun ) and the beginning of the Meiji period
Meiji period

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Kanji
KANJI (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: listen ) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that are used in the Japanese writing system . They are used alongside hiragana and katakana . The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters
Chinese characters
literally means "Han characters". It is written with the same term and characters in the Chinese language
Chinese language
to refer to the character writing system, hanzi (漢字)
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Shodan (rank)
SHODAN (初段), literally meaning "beginning degree," is the lowest black belt rank in Japanese martial arts and the game of Go . The 2nd dan is higher than Shodan, but the 1st dan is called Shodan traditionally and not "Ichidan". This is because the character 初 (sho, alternative pronunciation: hatsu) also means first, new or beginning in Japanese . Also frequently referred to as "first dan", it is a part of the kyū /dan ranking system common to modern Japanese martial arts . The term may be used to describe both the rank a person holds, as well as the person (i.e., it is proper to say that a person holds the rank of shodan, and it is also appropriate to say, "I am a shodan in 'x' martial art")
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Confucianism
HERMENEUTIC SCHOOLS: * Old Texts
Old Texts
* New Text Confucianism Confucianism
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