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Joseph Lennox Pawan
JOSEPH LENNOX DONATION PAWAN M.B.E. (6 September 1887 – 3 November 1957) was a Trinidadian bacteriologist who was the first person to show that rabies could be spread by vampire bats to other animals and humans. CONTENTS * 1 Education and career * 2 Publications * 3 Awards * 4 Footnotes * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATION AND CAREERBorn in Trinidad
Trinidad
, Pawan was educated at St. Mary’s College in Port of Spain and won an Island Scholarship in 1907. He then went on to Edinburgh University , where he graduated in 1912 with bachelor's degrees in medicine and surgery. After studying at the Pasteur Institute in France
France
he returned to Trinidad
Trinidad
in 1913, first as an Assistant Surgeon at the Colonial Hospital in Port of Spain, and later as the District Medical Officer in Tobago
Tobago
and Cedros , in southwestern Trinidad
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Anopheles
For a full description, see section Systematics and the main article: Taxonomy of Anopheles Some important species are: * A. albimanus * A. arabiensis * A. barberi * A. bellator * A. crucians * A. cruzii * A. culicifacies * A. darlingi * A. dirus * A. earlei * A. freeborni * A. funestus * A. gambiae (Giles 1902) * A. introlatus * A. latens * A. maculipennis * A. moucheti * A. nili * A. punctipennis * A. quadrimaculatus * A. stephensi * A. subpictus * A. sundaicus * A. walkeri Anopheles
Anopheles
range mapANOPHELES /əˈnɒfᵻliːz/ (Greek anofelís: "useless" ) is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818. About 460 species are recognised; while over 100 can transmit human malaria , only 30–40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium
Plasmodium
, which cause malaria in humans in endemic areas
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Sickle-cell Anaemia
SICKLE-CELL DISEASE (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person\'s parents . The most common type is known as SICKLE-CELL ANAEMIA (SCA). It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin (haemoglobin S) found in red blood cells . This leads to a rigid, sickle -like shape under certain circumstances. Problems in sickle cell disease typically begin around 5 to 6 months of age. A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain ("sickle-cell crisis"), anemia , swelling in the hands and feet , bacterial infections , and stroke . Long term pain may develop as people get older. The average life expectancy in the developed world is 40 to 60 years. Sickle-cell disease occurs when a person inherits two abnormal copies of the haemoglobin gene, one from each parent. This gene occurs in chromosome 11. Several subtypes exist, depending on the exact mutation in each haemoglobin gene
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Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS is a mosquito -borne viral pathogen that causes VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS or ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (VEE). VEE can affect all equine species, such as horses , donkeys , and zebras . After infection, equines may suddenly die or show progressive central nervous system disorders. Humans also can contract this disease. Healthy adults who become infected by the virus may experience flu -like symptoms, such as high fevers and headaches. People with weakened immune systems and the young and the elderly can become severely ill or die from this disease. The virus that causes VEE is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that bite an infected animal and then bite and feed on another animal or human. The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. Enzootic subtypes of VEE are diseases endemic to certain areas. Generally these serotypes do not spread to other localities
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Aedes
See List of Aedes species Aedes aegypti
Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus
Aedes albopictus
Aedes australis Aedes cinereus Aedes japonicus Aedes polynesiensis Aedes rusticus Aedes vexans AEDES is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones , but now found on all continents except Antarctica . Some species have been spread by human activity . Aedes albopictus
Aedes albopictus
, a most invasive species , was recently spread to the New World
New World
, including the United States
United States
, by the used-tire trade
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Artibeus
Artibeus amplus Artibeus anderseni Artibeus aztecus Artibeus
Artibeus
bogotensis
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Common Vampire Bat
The COMMON VAMPIRE BAT ( Desmodus
Desmodus
rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas
Americas
. It is one of three extant species of vampire bat , the other two being the hairy-legged and the white-winged vampire bats . The common vampire bat mainly feeds on the blood of livestock , approaching its prey at night while they are sleeping. It uses its razor-sharp teeth to cut open the skin of its hosts and laps up their blood with its long tongue. The species is highly polygynous , and dominant adult males defend groups of females. It is one of the most social of bat species with a number of cooperative behaviors such as social grooming and food sharing. Because it feeds on livestock and is a carrier of rabies , the common vampire bat is considered a pest
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Desmodus Rotundus
The COMMON VAMPIRE BAT ( Desmodus
Desmodus
rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas
Americas
. It is one of three extant species of vampire bat , the other two being the hairy-legged and the white-winged vampire bats . The common vampire bat mainly feeds on the blood of livestock , approaching its prey at night while they are sleeping. It uses its razor-sharp teeth to cut open the skin of its hosts and laps up their blood with its long tongue. The species is highly polygynous , and dominant adult males defend groups of females. It is one of the most social of bat species with a number of cooperative behaviors such as social grooming and food sharing. Because it feeds on livestock and is a carrier of rabies , the common vampire bat is considered a pest
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Louis Pasteur
LOUIS PASTEUR (/ˈluːi pæˈstɜːr/ , French: ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist , microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination , microbial fermentation and pasteurization . He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases , and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever , and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax . His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization
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Epidemiological
EPIDEMIOLOGY is the study and analysis of the patterns , causes , and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations . It is the cornerstone of public health , and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare . Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review ). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research , public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Joseph Lennox Pawan
JOSEPH LENNOX DONATION PAWAN M.B.E. (6 September 1887 – 3 November 1957) was a Trinidadian bacteriologist who was the first person to show that rabies could be spread by vampire bats to other animals and humans. CONTENTS * 1 Education and career * 2 Publications * 3 Awards * 4 Footnotes * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATION AND CAREERBorn in Trinidad
Trinidad
, Pawan was educated at St. Mary’s College in Port of Spain and won an Island Scholarship in 1907. He then went on to Edinburgh University , where he graduated in 1912 with bachelor's degrees in medicine and surgery. After studying at the Pasteur Institute in France
France
he returned to Trinidad
Trinidad
in 1913, first as an Assistant Surgeon at the Colonial Hospital in Port of Spain, and later as the District Medical Officer in Tobago
Tobago
and Cedros , in southwestern Trinidad
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The London Gazette
THE LONDON GAZETTE is one of the official journals of record of the British government
British government
, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette
The London Gazette
claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as THE OXFORD GAZETTE. This claim is also made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow\'s Worcester Journal , because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation
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Pan American Health Organization
The PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau :125) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas
Americas
. It was founded in December 1902. It is part of the United Nations
United Nations
system, serving as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
, and as the health organization of the Inter-American System. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Building * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONPAHO has scientific and technical expertise at its headquarters, in its 27 country offices, and its three Pan American centers, all working with the countries of the Americas
Americas
in dealing with priority health issues
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The Lancet
THE LANCET is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal . It is one of the world's oldest and best known general medical journals. The Lancet
The Lancet
was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley , an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet , as well as after the architectural term "lancet arch ", a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light". The Lancet
The Lancet
publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet
The Lancet
has been owned by Elsevier
Elsevier
since 1991. As of 2015 , the editor-in-chief is Richard Horton . The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing
Beijing

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Liverpool School Of Tropical Medicine
The LIVERPOOL SCHOOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE (LSTM) is a higher education institution and registered charity located in Liverpool
Liverpool
, United Kingdom. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Research * 3.1 Department of International Public Health * 3.2 Department of Parasitology * 3.3 Department of Clinical Sciences * 3.4 Department of Vector Biology * 3.5 Cross cutting themes * 4 Teaching * 5 Awards * 6 Notable alumni * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWEstablished in 1898, it was the first institution in the world dedicated to research and teaching in tropical medicine . The school has a research portfolio of over £220 million, assisted by funding from organisations such as the Bill "> The original LSTM building, which was opened in 1914 The new and original buildings LSTM was founded on 12 November 1898 by Sir Alfred Lewis Jones , a local ship owner
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