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Joseph Lennox Pawan
Joseph Lennox Donation Pawan M.B.E. (6 September 1887 – 3 November 1957) was a Trinidadian bacteriologist who was the first person to show that rabies could be spread by vampire bats to other animals and humans.Contents1 Education and career 2 Publications 3 Awards 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External linksEducation and career[edit] Born in Trinidad, Pawan was educated at St. Mary’s College in Port of Spain and won an Island Scholarship in 1907. He then went on to Edinburgh University, where he graduated in 1912 with bachelor's degrees in medicine and surgery
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Edinburgh University
The University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582,[1] is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university.[5] The University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
was ranked 19th in the world by the 2016–17 QS rankings.[6] It is now ranked 23rd in the world according to 2018 QS Rankings.[7] It is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U.S
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Common Vampire Bat
The common vampire bat ( Desmodus
Desmodus
rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas. It is one of three extant species of vampire bat, the other two being the hairy-legged and the white-winged vampire bats. The common vampire bat mainly feeds on the blood of livestock, approaching its prey at night while they are sleeping. It uses its razor-sharp teeth to cut open the skin of its hosts and laps up their blood with its long tongue. The species is highly polygynous, and dominant adult males defend groups of females. It is one of the most social of bat species with a number of cooperative behaviors such as social grooming and food sharing. Because it feeds on livestock and is a carrier of rabies, the common vampire bat is considered a pest
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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The London Gazette
The London Gazette
The London Gazette
is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette
The London Gazette
claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford
Oxford
Gazette.[a][2] This claim is also made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage
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Pan American Health Organization
The Pan American Health Organization
Pan American Health Organization
(PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau[1]:125) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas. It was founded in December 1902. It is part of the United Nations
United Nations
system, serving as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, and as the health organization of the Inter-American System.Contents1 Description 2 Building 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] PAHO has scientific and technical expertise at its headquarters, in its 27 country offices, and its three Pan American centers, all working with the countries of the Americas
Americas
in dealing with priority health issues. The health authorities of PAHO's Member States set PAHO's technical and administrative policies through its Governing Bodies
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Liverpool School Of Tropical Medicine
The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is a higher education institution and registered charity located in Liverpool, United Kingdom.[2] Established in 1898, it was the first institution in the world dedicated to research and teaching in tropical medicine
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The Lancet
The Lancet
The Lancet
is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest and best known general medical journals.[1] The Lancet
The Lancet
was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet, as well as after the architectural term "lancet arch",[2] a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light". The Lancet
The Lancet
publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet
The Lancet
has been owned by Elsevier
Elsevier
since 1991
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Epidemiological
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. In short, trying to work out why certain people are getting ill. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review)
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Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(/ˈluːi pæˈstɜːr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization
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Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE). VEE can affect all equine species, such as horses, donkeys, and zebras. After infection, equines may suddenly die or show progressive central nervous system disorders. Humans also can contract this disease. Healthy adults who become infected by the virus may experience flu-like symptoms, such as high fevers and headaches. People with weakened immune systems and the young and the elderly can become severely ill or die from this disease. The virus that causes VEE is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that bite an infected animal and then bite and feed on another animal or human. The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. Enzootic subtypes of VEE are diseases endemic to certain areas. Generally these serotypes do not spread to other localities
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Sickle-cell Anaemia
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.[2] The most common type is known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA).[2] It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin (haemoglobin S) found in red blood cells.[2] This leads to a rigid, sickle-like shape under certain circumstances.[2] Problems in sickle cell disease typically begin around 5 to 6 months of age.[1] A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain ("sickle-cell crisis"), anemia, swelling in the hands and feet, bacterial infections, and stroke.[1] Long term pain may develop as people get older.[2] The average life expectancy in the developed world is 40 to 60 years.[2] Sickle-cell disease occurs when a person inherits two abnormal copies of the haemoglobin gene, one from each parent.[3] This gene occurs in chromosome 11.[9] Several subtypes exist, depending on the exact mutation in each haemoglobin gene.[2] An attack can be set off by te
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Anopheles
For a full description, see section Systematics and the main article: Taxonomy of Anopheles Some important species are:A. albimanus A. arabiensis A. barberi A. bellator A. crucians A. cruzii A. culicifacies A. darlingi A. dirus A. earlei A. freeborni A. funestus A. gambiae (Giles 1902) A. introlatus A. latens A. maculipennis A. moucheti A. nili A. punctipennis A. quadrimaculatus A. stephensi A. subpictus A. sundaicus A. walkeri Anopheles
Anopheles
range map Anopheles
Anopheles
/əˈnɒfɪliːz/[1] (Greek anofelís: "useless"[2]) is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.[3] About 460 species are recognised; while over 100 can transmit human malaria, only 30–40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which cause malaria in humans in endemic areas
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Aedes
See List of Aedes
Aedes
species Aedes
Aedes
aegypti Aedes
Aedes
albopictus Aedes
Aedes
australis Aedes
Aedes
cinereus Aedes
Aedes
japonicus Aedes
Aedes
polynesiensis[1] Aedes
Aedes
rusticus Aedes
Aedes
vexans Aedes
Aedes
is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents except Antarctica. Some species have been spread by human activity. Aedes
Aedes
albopictus, a most invasive species, was recently spread to the New World, including the United States, by the used-tire trade
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Artibeus
Artibeus
Artibeus
amplus Artibeus
Artibeus
anderseni Artibeus
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Desmodus Rotundus
The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas. It is one of three extant species of vampire bat, the other two being the hairy-legged and the white-winged vampire bats. The common vampire bat mainly feeds on the blood of livestock, approaching its prey at night while they are sleeping. It uses its razor-sharp teeth to cut open the skin of its hosts and laps up their blood with its long tongue. The species is highly polygynous, and dominant adult males defend groups of females. It is one of the most social of bat species with a number of cooperative behaviors such as social grooming and food sharing. Because it feeds on livestock and is a carrier of rabies, the common vampire bat is considered a pest
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