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José Rizal
José Protasio Rizal
Rizal
Mercado y Alonso Realonda,[7] widely known as José Rizal
Rizal
(Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse riˈsal]; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal
Rizal
became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement
Propaganda Movement
which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out
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Laong Laan (PNR Station)
Laong Laan station (also called Dapitan station) is a station on the South Main Line (Southrail) of the Philippine National Railways
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Polymath
A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much,"[1] Latin: homo universalis, "universal man"[citation needed]) is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title (De Polymathia tractatio: integri operis de studiis veterum) was published in 1603 by Johann von Wower, a Hamburg philosopher.[2][3][4][5] Wower defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies [...] ranging freely through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them".[3] Wower lists erudition, literature, philology, philomathy and polyhistory as synonyms
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Jacinto Zamora
Jacinto Zamora
Jacinto Zamora
y del Rosario (14 August 1835 - 17 February 1872) was a Filipino secular priest, part of the Gomburza
Gomburza
trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila
Manila
along with two other clergymen.Contents1 Early life 2 Pastoral life 3 Death 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born on August 14, 1835 to Venancio Zamora and Hilaria del Rosario, he began his early education in Pandacan
Pandacan
and later at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. He was classified as a Filipino mestizo under the Spanish caste system prevailing at that time.[1] He later transferred to the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
after finishing his Bachiller en Artes
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Mariano Gomez
Mariano Gómez
Mariano Gómez
de los Ángeles was a Filipino Catholic priest, part of the Gomburza
Gomburza
trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 19th century. He was placed in a mock trial and summarily executed in Manila
Manila
along with two other clergymen.Contents1 Early life 2 Assignment in Cavite 3 Death 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Gómez was born on August 2, 1799 in the suburb of Santa Cruz, Manila. He was a Tornatrás, one born of mixed native (Filipino), Chinese and Spanish ancestries. His parents were Alejandro Francisco Gómez and Martina Custodia. After studying in the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán, he took theology in the University of Santo Tomás
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Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Manchu
The Manchu[note 1] (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; Abkai: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China
China
and the people from whom Manchuria
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Amoy
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian, China, beside the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
in the north and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people
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Catálogo Alfabético De Apellidos
The Catálogo alfabético de apellidos (English: Alphabetical Catalogue of Surnames; Tagalog: Alpabetikong Katalogo ng mga apelyedo) is a book of surnames in the Philippines
Philippines
and other islands of Spanish East Indies published in the mid-19th century. This was in response to a Spanish colonial decree establishing the distribution of Spanish family names and local surnames among colonial subjects who did not have a prior surname. It is also the reason why Filipinos share the same surnames of Spanish people.[3] The book was created after Spanish Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa issued a decree on November 21, 1849, to address the lack of a standard naming convention.[4] Newly-Christianised Filipinos often chose the now-ubiquitous surnames of de los Santos, de la Cruz, del Rosario, and Bautista for religious reasons; others preferred names of well-known local rulers such as Lacandola
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Narciso Clavería Y Zaldúa
Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
(Catalan: Narcís Claveria i Zaldua; 2 May 1795 – 20 June 1851) was a Spanish army officer who served as the Governor-General of the Philippines
Governor-General of the Philippines
from July 16, 1844 to December 26, 1849. During his term in the country, he tried to give the Islands a government as good as that of modern Spain. He traveled through many provinces trying to learn the needs of Filipinos
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Dominican Order
The Order of Preachers (Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation O.P.), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III
via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam
Religiosam vitam
on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters O.P. after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers
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Hacienda
An hacienda (UK: /ˌhæsiˈɛndə/ or US: /ˌhɑːsiˈɛndə/; Spanish: [aˈθjenda] or [aˈsjenda]), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa. Some haciendas were plantations, mines or factories. Many haciendas combined these productive activities. The term hacienda is imprecise, but usually refers to landed estates of significant size. Smaller holdings were termed estancias or ranchos that were owned almost exclusively by Spaniards and criollos and in rare cases by mixed-race individuals.[1] In Argentina, the term estancia is used for large estates that in Mexico
Mexico
would be termed haciendas. In recent decades, the term has been used in the United States to refer to an architectural style associated with the earlier estate manor houses. The hacienda system of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, New Granada and Peru
Peru
was a system of large land holdings
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Philippine Independence
Independence Day (Filipino: Araw ng Kasarinlan; also known as Araw ng Kalayaan, (or "Day of Freedom") is an annual national holiday in the Philippines
Philippines
observed on June 12, commemorating the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain
Spain
on June 12, 1898. Since 1962, it has been the country's National Day.Contents1 History 2 Flag Day 3 Holiday customs3.1 National Independence Day Ceremonies and Parade 3.2 Centennial4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Main article: History of the Philippines
Philippines
(1898–1946) See also: Philippine Declaration of IndependenceThe Proclamation of Independence on June 12, 1898, as depicted on the back of the Philippine five peso bill.Declaration of Independence Document written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista.The day of celebration of war and love varied throughout the nation's history
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Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire
Empire
(Spanish: Imperio Español) was one of the largest empires in history. At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines.[1] From the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World.[2][3] The crown's main source of wealth was from gold and silver mined in Mexico
Mexico
and Peru. The empire reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs,[4] through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the 18th century
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Ophthalmologist
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
(/ˌɒfθælˈmɒlədʒi/ or /ˌɒpθælˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.[2] An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye disease. Their credentials include a doctorate degree in medicine, followed by an additional four years of Ophthalmology
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Political Reform
Reform
Reform
(Latin: reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.[1] The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill’s Association movement which identified “Parliamentary Reform” as its primary aim.[2] Reform
Reform
is generally distinguished from revolution. The latter means basic or radical change; whereas reform may be no more than fine tuning, or at most redressing serious wrongs without altering the fundamentals of the system. Reform
Reform
seeks to improve the system as it stands, never to overthrow it wholesale
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