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Jomsvikings
The Jomsvikings
Jomsvikings
were a semi-legendary order of Viking
Viking
mercenaries or brigands of the 10th century and 11th century. They were staunchly Pagan and dedicated to the worship of such deities as Odin
Odin
and Thor. They reputedly would fight for any lord able to pay their substantial fees and occasionally fought alongside Christian
Christian
rulers. Although they were Pagan, the institutions of the Jomsvikings
Jomsvikings
in some ways anticipated those of the Christian
Christian
Knightly Orders
Knightly Orders
of the later Middle Ages. [1] The legend of the Jomsvikings
Jomsvikings
appears in some of the Icelandic sagas from the 12th and 13th centuries
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Skald
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse: [ˈskald], later [ˈskɒ:ld]; Icelandic: [ˈskault], meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age
Viking Age
and Middle Ages. Skaldic poetry
Skaldic poetry
forms one of two main groupings of Old Norse
Old Norse
poetry, the other being the anonymous Eddic poetry. The most prevalent metre of skaldic poetry is dróttkvætt. The subject is usually historical and encomiastic, detailing the deeds of the skald's patron. There is no evidence that the skalds employed musical instruments, but some speculate that they may have accompanied their verses with the harp or lyre.[1] The technical demands of the skaldic form were equal to the complicated verse forms mastered by the Welsh bards and Gaelic (in both Scotland and Ireland) ollaves
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Blood Feud
A feud /fjuːd/, referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, beef, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans. Feuds begin because one party (correctly or incorrectly) perceives itself to have been attacked, insulted or wronged by another. Intense feelings of resentment trigger the initial retribution, which causes the other party to feel equally aggrieved and vengeful. The dispute is subsequently fuelled by a long-running cycle of retaliatory violence. This continual cycle of provocation and retaliation makes it extremely difficult to end the feud peacefully. Feuds frequently involve the original parties' family members and/or associates, can last for generations, and may result in extreme acts of violence
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Eric The Victorious
Eric the Victorious
Eric the Victorious
(Old Norse: Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, Modern Swedish: Erik Segersäll; about 945? – about 995) was a Swedish monarch as of around 970. Since he is the first Swedish king in a consecutive regnal succession, who is attested in sources independent of each other, Sweden's list of rulers usually begins with him.[2][3] His son Olof Skötkonung, however, is considered the first ruler documented to definitely have been accepted both by the original Swedes around Lake Mälaren
Mälaren
and by the Geats
Geats
around Lake Vättern, which peoples were fundamental in forming the nation of Sweden. Some sources have referred to Eric the Victorious
Eric the Victorious
as either King Eric V or Eric VI, modern inventions by counting backwards from Eric XIV (1560–68), who adopted his numeral according to a mythological history of Sweden
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Lausavísa
In Old Norse poetry and later Icelandic poetry, a lausavísa (pl. lausavísur) is a single stanza composition, or a set of stanzas unconnected by narrative or thematic continuity. Lausavísur are often introduced in the text of sagas with the phrase þá kvað (then said). References[edit]Carmina ScaldicaExternal links[edit]Skaldic Poetry Project - Anonymous lausavísa from Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgumThis poetry-related article is a stub
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Single Combat
Single combat
Single combat
is a duel between two single warriors which takes place in the context of a battle between two armies. Often, it is champion warfare, with the two considered the champions of their respective sides. Instances of single combat are known from Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The champions were often combatants who represented larger, spectator groups. Such representative contests and stories thereof are known worldwide. Typically, it takes place in the no-man's-land between the opposing armies, with other warriors watching and themselves refraining from fighting until one of the two single combatants has won. But single combat could also take place within a larger battle. Both ancient and medieval warfare did not always rely on the line or phalanx formation
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Duel
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period (19th to early 20th centuries) especially among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries (and earlier), duels were mostly fought with swords (the rapier, and later the smallsword), but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more commonly fought using pistols. Fencing
Fencing
and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century. The duel was based on a code of honor
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Holmgang
Holmgang
Holmgang
(hólmganga in Old Norse
Old Norse
and modern Icelandic, holmgång in Swedish, holmgang in Danish and Norwegian bokmål and nynorsk) is a duel practiced by early medieval Scandinavians. It was a recognized way to settle disputes. Holmgang
Holmgang
can be translated as "to go to (or walk on) a small island" or simply "holme going", perhaps a reference to the duels taking place upon a small piece of hide or cloak placed on the ground. The name may also derive from the combatants dueling on a small island or holme, as they do in the saga of Egill Skallagrimsson. At least in theory, anyone offended could challenge the other party to holmgang regardless of their differences in social status. This could be a matter of honor, ownership or property, demand of restitution or debt, legal disagreement or intention to help a wife or relative or avenge a friend. Holmgangs were fought 3–7 days after the challenge
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Military Discipline
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces. Many nation-states have separate and distinct bodies of law that govern the conduct of members of their armed forces. Some states use special judicial and other arrangements to enforce those laws, while others use civilian judicial systems. Legal issues unique to military justice include the preservation of good order and discipline, the legality of orders, and appropriate conduct for members of the military. Some states enable their military justice systems to deal with civil offenses committed by their armed forces in some circumstances. Military justice is distinct from martial law, which is the imposition of military authority on a civilian population as a substitute for civil authority, and is often declared in times of emergency, war, or civil unrest
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Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian"). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark
Denmark
and is an essential source for the nation's early history. It is also one of the oldest known written documents about the history of Estonia and Latvia. Consisting of sixteen books written in Latin
Latin
on the invitation of Archbishop
Archbishop
Absalon, Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
describes Danish history and to some degree Scandinavian history in general, from prehistory to the late 12th century
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (Polish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Mazurek Dąbro
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Uppsala
Uppsala
Uppsala
(pronounced [²ɵpːsɑːla] ( listen); older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County
Uppsala County
and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Malmö. It had 149,245 inhabitants in 2015.[1] Located 71 km (44 mi) north of the capital Stockholm, it is also the seat of Uppsala
Uppsala
Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala
Uppsala
has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden
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Knýtlinga Saga
Knýtlinga saga (The Saga of Cnut's Descendants) is an Icelandic kings' saga written in the 1250s, which deals with the kings who ruled Denmark since the early 10th century.[1] There are good reasons to assume that the author was Óláfr Þórðarson (d. 1259), nicknamed hvítaskáld "the White Poet", who was a nephew of Snorri Sturluson.[1] Óláfr Þórðarson is also known for having written the Third Grammatical Treatise.[1] Ólafr stayed with the Danish ruler Valdemar II of Denmark
Valdemar II of Denmark
in 1240–1241, and Valdemar provided the saga's author with "a great deal of information" and "outstanding accounts".[2] The work is modelled on the Heimskringla, Snorri's work on the Norwegian kings.[1][3] Like Snorri, the author makes frequent use of skaldic poetry as documentary sources.[2] The saga covers the history of the Danish rulers from the early 10th century until the 13th century
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Wends
Wends
Wends
(Old English: Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, German: Wenden, Winden, Danish: vendere, Swedish: vender, Polish: Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs
Slavs
living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term "Wends" often referred to West Slavs
Slavs
and Slovenes
Slovenes
living within the Holy Roman Empire, though not always
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Burislav
Burislav, Burisleif, Burysław (died 1008) is the name of a mythical Wendish king from Scandinavian sagas who is said to rule over Wendland. He is said to be father of Gunhild, Astrid and Geira
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Eyrbyggja Saga
Eyrbyggja saga
Eyrbyggja saga
(Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈeirpɪcːa ˈsaːɣa] ( listen)) is one of the Icelanders' sagas; its title can be translated as The Saga of the People of Eyri.[1] It was written by an anonymous writer, who describes a long-standing feud between Snorri Goði
Snorri Goði
and Arnkel Goði, two strong chieftains within the Norse community that settled in Iceland. The title is slightly misleading as it deals also with the clans from Þórsnes and Alptafjörðr on Iceland. The most central character is Snorri Þorgrímsson, referred to as Snorri goði
Snorri goði
and Snorri the Priest. Snorri was the nephew of the hero of Gísla saga, and is also featured prominently in Njáls saga
Njáls saga
and Laxdœla saga
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