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Jomsvikings
The JOMSVIKINGS were a semi-legendary order of Viking
Viking
mercenaries or brigands of the 10th century and 11th century. They were staunchly Pagan and dedicated to the worship of such deities as Odin
Odin
and Thor
Thor
. They reputedly would fight for any lord able to pay their substantial fees and occasionally fought alongside Christian
Christian
rulers. Although they were Pagan, the institutions of the Jomsvikings
Jomsvikings
in some ways anticipated those of the Christian
Christian
Knightly Orders
Knightly Orders
of the later Middle Ages . The legend of the Jomsvikings
Jomsvikings
appears in some of the Icelandic sagas from the 12th and 13th centuries
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Duel
A DUEL is an arranged engagement in combat between two individuals, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules . Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry , and continued into the modern period (19th to early 20th centuries) especially among military officers . During the 17th and 18th centuries (and earlier), duels were mostly fought with swords (the rapier , and later the smallsword ), but beginning in the late 18th century in England
England
, duels were more commonly fought using pistols . Fencing
Fencing
and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century. The duel was based on a code of honor
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Holmgang
HOLMGANG (HóLMGANGA in Old Norse
Old Norse
and modern Icelandic , HOLMGåNG in Swedish, HOLMGANG in Danish and Norwegian bokmål and nynorsk) is a duel practiced by early medieval Scandinavians. It was a recognized way to settle disputes. Holmgang
Holmgang
can be translated as "to go to (or walk on) a small island" or simply "holme going", perhaps a reference to the duels taking place upon a small piece of hide or cloak placed on the ground. The name may also derive from the combatants dueling on a small island or holme, as they do in the saga of Egill Skallagrimsson . At least in theory, anyone offended could challenge the other party to holmgang regardless of their differences in social status. This could be a matter of honor, ownership or property, demand of restitution or debt, legal disagreement or intention to help a wife or relative or avenge a friend. Holmgangs were fought 3–7 days after the challenge
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Military Discipline
MILITARY JUSTICE is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces . Many states have separate and distinct bodies of law that govern the conduct of members of their armed forces. Some states use special judicial and other arrangements to enforce those laws, while others use civilian judicial systems. Legal issues unique to military justice include the preservation of good order and discipline, the legality of orders, and appropriate conduct for members of the military. Some states enable their military justice systems to deal with civil offenses committed by their armed forces in some circumstances. Military
Military
justice is distinct from the imposition of military authority on a civilian population as a substitute for civil authority. The latter condition is generally termed martial law , and is often declared in times of emergency, war, or civil unrest
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Single Combat
SINGLE COMBAT is a duel between two single warriors which takes place in the context of a battle between two armies. Often, it is champion warfare , with the two considered the champions of their respective sides. Instances of single combat are known from Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The champions were often combatants who represented larger, spectator groups. Such representative contests and stories thereof are known worldwide. Typically, it takes place in the no-man\'s-land between the opposing armies, with other warriors watching and themselves refraining from fighting until one of the two single combatants has won. But single combat could also take place within a larger battle . Both ancient and medieval warfare did not always rely on the line or phalanx formation
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Lausavísa
In Old Norse poetry and later Icelandic poetry , a LAUSAVíSA (pl. LAUSAVíSUR) is a single stanza composition, or a set of stanzas unconnected by narrative or thematic continuity. Lausavísur are often introduced in the text of sagas with the phrase þá kvað (then said)
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Vineta
VINETA (sometimes Wineta) is the name of a mythical city at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. The myth evolved around the tradition about the medieval emporium called Jumne, Jomsborg (with which Vineta
Vineta
is sometimes identified), Julin or similar names by the chronicles
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Eric The Victorious
ERIC THE VICTORIOUS ( Old Norse
Old Norse
: Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, Modern Swedish: Erik Segersäll) (c. 945? – c. 995) was the first Swedish king (c. 970–995) about whom anything definite is known. Whether he actually qualifies as King of Sweden
Sweden
has been debated, as his son Olof Skötkonung was the first ruler documented to have been accepted both by the Svear around Lake Mälaren
Mälaren
and by the Götar around Lake Vättern
Vättern
. Sometimes, Eric the Victorious
Eric the Victorious
is referred to as either King Eric V or VI, modern inventions based on counting backwards from Eric XIV (1560–68), who adopted his numeral according to a mythological history of Sweden
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Blood Feud
A FEUD /ˈfjuːd/ , referred to in more extreme cases as a BLOOD FEUD, VENDETTA, FAIDA, BEEF, CLAN WAR, GANG WAR, or PRIVATE WAR, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans . Feuds begin because one party (correctly or incorrectly) perceives itself to have been attacked, insulted or wronged by another. Intense feelings of resentment trigger the initial retribution , which causes the other party to feel equally aggrieved and vengeful . The dispute is subsequently fuelled by a long-running cycle of retaliatory violence . This continual cycle of provocation and retaliation makes it extremely difficult to end the feud peacefully. Feuds frequently involve the original parties' family members and/or associates, can last for generations , and may result in extreme acts of violence . They can be interpreted as an extreme outgrowth of social relations based in family honor
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Gesta Danorum
GESTA DANORUM ("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian"). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark
Denmark
and is an essential source for the nation's early history. It is also one of the oldest known written documents about the history of Estonia and Latvia . Consisting of sixteen books written in Latin
Latin
on the invitation of Archbishop
Archbishop
Absalon , Gesta Danorum
Gesta Danorum
describes Danish history and to some degree Scandinavian history in general, from prehistory to the late 12th century
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Eyrbyggja Saga
EYRBYGGJA SAGA (Icelandic pronunciation: ( listen )) is one of the Icelanders\' sagas ; its title can be translated as The Saga of the People of Eyri. It was written by an anonymous writer, who describes a long-standing feud between Snorri Goði and Arnkel Goði, two strong chieftains within the Norse community that settled in Iceland . The title is slightly misleading as it deals also with the clans from Þórsnes and Alptafjörðr on Iceland . The most central character is Snorri Þorgrímsson, referred to as Snorri goði and Snorri the Priest. Snorri was the nephew of the hero of Gísla saga , and is also featured prominently in Njáls saga and Laxdœla saga . Another main interest of the Eyrbyggja Saga is to trace a few key families as they settled Iceland, specifically around the Snæfellsnes peninsula
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Mårten Eskil Winge
MåRTEN ESKIL WINGE (21 September 1825 – 22 April 1896) was a Swedish artist especially known for his Norse mythology
Norse mythology
paintings. He was a professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
. He was a friend of August Malmström and was influenced by Nils Blommér
Nils Blommér
and Carl Wahlbom . He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
Düsseldorf school of painting
. BIOGRAPHYBorn in Stockholm
Stockholm
, Mårten Eskil Winge
Mårten Eskil Winge
was the son of the rector and vicar Isaac Martin Winge and Andrietta Sophia Rothman. Winge was educated at the Cathedral School in Uppsala
Uppsala
, passing his studentexamen in 1846, after which he became an apprentice in painting with P. E. Wallander in Stockholm
Stockholm

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Otto Sinding
OTTO LUDVIG SINDING (20 December 1842 – 22 November 1909) was a Norwegian painter , illustrator, poet and dramatist. Sinding drew on motives from Norwegian nature, folk life and history. CONTENTS * 1 Personal life * 2 Career * 3 References * 4 Other sources PERSONAL LIFE Otto Sinding
Otto Sinding
was born in Kongsberg
Kongsberg
as a son of mine superindendent Matthias Wilhelm Sinding (1811–1860) and Cecilie Marie Mejdell (1817–86). He was the older brother of the sculptor Stephan Sinding and the composer Christian Sinding . He was a nephew of Nicolai Mejdell (1822–1899) and Thorvald Mejdell (1824–1908), and through the former a first cousin of Glør Thorvald Mejdell , who married Otto's sister Thora Cathrine Sinding
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Burislav
BURISLAV, BURISLEIF, BURYSłAW (died 1008) is the name of a mythical Wendish king from Scandinavian sagas who is said to rule over Wendland. He is said to be father of Gunhild , Astrid and Geira . There are three possible hypotheses over his identity: first, that there actually was a Slavic prince of that name; second, that this was the name given by saga authors to any Slavic prince; third, that he is a compound person, combining two Polish rulers: Mieszko I of Poland and Boleslaw I of Poland
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Wends
WENDS (Old English : Winedas, Old Norse
Old Norse
: Vindr, German : Wenden, Winden, Danish : vendere, Swedish : vender, Polish : Wendowie) is a historical name for West Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term "Wends" often referred to Western Slavs living within the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, though not always. Mieszko I , the first historical ruler of Poland
Poland
, also appeared as "Dagome, King of the Wends
Wends
" (Old Norse: Vindakonungr). The name has possibly survived in Finnic languages (Finnish : Venäjä, Estonian : Vene, Karelian : Veneä) denoting Russia
Russia

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Uppsala
UPPSALA (pronounced ( listen ); older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County
Uppsala County
and the fourth largest city of Sweden
Sweden
, after Stockholm
Stockholm
, Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Malmö
Malmö
. It had 149,245 inhabitants in 2015. Located 71 km (44 mi) north of the capital Stockholm
Stockholm
, it is also the seat of Uppsala Municipality . Since 1164, Uppsala
Uppsala
has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden
Sweden
. Uppsala
Uppsala
is home to Scandinavia's largest cathedral – Uppsala
Uppsala
Cathedral
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