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John Winthrop The Younger
John Winthrop
John Winthrop
the Younger (12 February 1606 – 6 April 1676) was governor of Connecticut.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Family 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Winthrop was born in Groton, England, the son of John Winthrop, founding governor of the Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
Colony. He was educated at the Bury St. Edmunds
Bury St. Edmunds
grammar school, King Edward VI School, and Trinity College, Dublin, and he studied law for a short time after 1624 at the Inner Temple, London
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Dictionary Of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography
Biography
(DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Biography
(ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives.Contents1 First series 2 Supplements and revisions 3 Concise dictionary 4 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 5 First series contents 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksFirst series[edit] Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (1875), in 1882 the publisher George Smith (1824–1901), of Smith, Elder & Co., planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen, then editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor
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Maize
Maize
Maize
(/meɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico[1][2] about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize
Maize
has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with total production surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, not all of this maize is consumed directly by humans. Some of the maize production is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup
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Connecticut River
The Connecticut
Connecticut
River
River
is the longest river in the New England
New England
region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. It rises at the U.S. border with Quebec, Canada
Canada
and discharges at Long Island Sound.[3] Its watershed encompasses five U.S
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Braintree, Massachusetts
Braintree (US: /ˈbreɪnˌtri/), officially the Town of Braintree, is a suburban New England
England
city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States
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Grist Mill
A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill or flour mill) grinds grain into flour. The term can refer to both the grinding mechanism and the building that holds it.Contents1 History1.1 Early history 1.2 Classical British and American mills2 Modern mills 3 Pests 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 Gallery 8 External linksHistory[edit] Early history[edit]Senenu Grinding Grain, ca. 1352-1336 B.C., The royal scribe Senenu appears here bent over a large grinding stone. This unusual sculpture seems to be an elaborate version of a shabti, a funerary figurine placed in the tomb to work in place of the deceased in the hereafter. Brooklyn MuseumMain article: Watermill See also: List of ancient watermills
List of ancient watermills
and List of early medieval watermillsThe basic anatomy of a millstone
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New Haven Colony
The New Haven
New Haven
Colony was a small English colony in North America
North America
from 1637 to 1664 in what is now the state of Connecticut.[1] The history of the colony was a series of disappointments and failures. The most serious problem was that New Haven
New Haven
colony never had a charter giving it legal title to exist. The larger, stronger colony of Connecticut to the north did have a charter, and Connecticut was aggressive in using its military superiority to force a takeover. New Haven had other weaknesses, as well. The leaders were businessmen and traders, but they were never able to build up a large or profitable trade because their agricultural base was poor, farming the rocky soil was difficult, and the location was isolated
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United Colonies Of New England
The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a short-lived military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, formed in May 1643. Its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies in support of the church, and for defense against the American Indians and the Dutch colony of New Netherland.[1] It was the first milestone on the long road to colonial unity, and was established as a direct result of a war that started between the Mohegans and Narragansetts. Its charter provided for the return of fugitive criminals and indentured servants, and served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes
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Royal Society
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for Improving Natural Knowledge,[1] commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society".[1] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world.[2] The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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Philosophical Transactions
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society
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Massachusetts Historical Society
66000770 [1]Significant datesAdded to NRHP October 15, 1966Designated NHL December 21, 1965The Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history
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Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke
Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke[1] (May 1607 – 2 March 1643[2]) was an English Civil War
English Civil War
Roundhead
Roundhead
General.Contents1 Biography 2 Family 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingBiography[edit] Greville was the cousin and adopted son of Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, and thus became the second Lord Brooke, and owner of Warwick Castle.[3] He was born in 1607, and entered parliament for Warwick in 1628. He attended parliament and took part in some debates, but an investigation took place into his election for Warwick, and it was voided on 31 May 1628. Before a by-election could take place, Greville's adopted father died, on 30 September 1628, and Robert succeeded to the peerage that year, and thereafter was able to sit in the House of Lords
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American War Of Independence
Allied victory:Peace of Paris British recognition of American independence End of the First British Empire British retention of Canada
Canada
and GibraltarTerritorial changesGreat Britain cedes to the United States
United States
the area east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and south of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and St
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Gurdon Saltonstall
Gurdon Saltonstall
Gurdon Saltonstall
(27 March 1666 – 20 September 1724) was governor of the Colony of Connecticut from 1708 to 1724. Born into a distinguished family, Saltonstall became an accomplished and eminent Connecticut pastor. A close associate of Governor
Governor
Fitz-John Winthrop, Saltonstall was appointed the colony's governor after Winthrop's death in 1707, and then reelected to the office annually until his own death.Contents1 Early life and pastor 2 Political career 3 Personal life 4 References 5 External linksEarly life and pastor[edit] Saltonstall was the son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Ward) Saltonstall, a prominent north Massachusetts family active in Massachusetts politics since the 1630s
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Nathaniel Saltonstall
Col. Nathaniel Saltonstall (also spelled Nathanial Saltonstall; ca. 1639 – 1707) was a judge for the Court of Oyer and Terminer, a special court established in 1692 for the trial and sentence of people, mostly women, for the crime of witchcraft in the Province of Massachusetts Bay during the Salem Witch Trials. He is most famous for his resignation from the court, and though he left no indication of his feelings toward witchcraft, he is considered to be one of the more principled men of his time.[1] Born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in about 1639, to Richard Saltonstall (1610 – 1694), he was the grandson of Sir Richard Saltonstall. He graduated from Harvard College
Harvard College
in 1659, beginning the family tradition of higher education at this university. On December 29, 1663, he wed Elizabeth Ward, who was 18 years old, and acquired from her father, John Ward, the estate later known as the Saltonstall Seat. Two of their children were Col
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Dudley Saltonstall
Dudley Saltonstall (1738–1796) was an American naval commander during the American Revolutionary War. He is best known as the commander of the naval forces of the 1779 Penobscot Expedition, which ended in complete disaster, with all ships lost.[1] Norton (2003) argues the Penobscot Expedition
Penobscot Expedition
was a total failure due to poor planning, inadequate training, and timid leadership on the part of Saltonstall.Contents1 Early life 2 Continental Navy 3 Penobscot expedition 4 Later career 5 References5.1 Notes6 Further readingEarly life[edit] Dudley Saltonstall was born in 1738 to Gurdon Saltonstall Jr and Mary Winthrop
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