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John Eladas
JOHN ELADAS (Greek : Ἰωάννης ὁ Ἐλαδᾶς; died 914) was a senior member of the Byzantine
Byzantine
court and regent in the early 10th century. LIFEHe is first mentioned during the reign of Leo VI the Wise
Leo VI the Wise
(reigned 886–912), when he held the title of patrikios and was tasked with collecting money (possibly in exchange for commuting military service ) from the European themata . Under Leo VI's brother and successor, Alexander (r. 912–913) he bore the supreme non-imperial title, that of magistros , which he may have received already under Leo. Follis
Follis
with Empress-regent Zoe and her son, Constantine VII
Constantine VII
In June 913, shortly before his death, Alexander appointed him as guardian and member of a regency council for Leo's underage son, Constantine VII
Constantine VII
(r
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Steven Runciman
SIR JAMES COCHRAN STEVENSON RUNCIMAN, CH , FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as STEVEN RUNCIMAN, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54). His three-volume history has had a profound impact on common conceptions of the Crusades
Crusades
, primarily portraying the Crusaders negatively and the Muslims favourably. Runciman was a strong admirer of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, and consequently held a bias against the Crusaders for the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
evident in his work. While praised by older crusade historians as a storyteller and prose stylist, he is viewed as biased by some contemporary historians. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Last year and death * 3 Assessment * 4 Honours * 5 Works * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Rhaiktor
The RHAIKTOR (Greek : ῥαίκτωρ, the hellenized form of Latin rector ) was a high-ranking court position of the middle Byzantine Empire . CONTENTS * 1 History and functions * 2 List of known holders * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONSJ. B. Bury assumed that the post was created either under Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) or his father Basil I the Macedonian (r. 867–886), but Nicolas Oikonomides restored it in the text of the Taktikon Uspensky of c. 843. The title is also found in seals of the 7th and 8th centuries, but with a different sense; thus a "rhaiktor of Calabria " was the administrator of the local estates of the See of Rome in Calabria. The Kletorologion of 899 includes the rhaiktor among the "special dignities" (axiai eidikai). The exact functions of the office are not clear, but, as J. B. Bury wrote, they probably "consisted in exercising some authority over the Imperial household"
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Byzantine Navy
The BYZANTINE NAVY was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire . Like the empire it served, it was a direct continuation from its Imperial Roman predecessor , but played a far greater role in the defence and survival of the state than its earlier iteration. While the fleets of the unified Roman Empire
Roman Empire
faced few great naval threats, operating as a policing force vastly inferior in power and prestige to the legions , the sea became vital to the very existence of the Byzantine state, which several historians have called a "maritime empire". The first threat to Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
was posed by the Vandals
Vandals
in the 5th century, but their threat was ended by the wars of Justinian I
Justinian I
in the 6th century
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Chalke Gate
The CHALKE GATE (Greek : Χαλκῆ Πύλη), was the main ceremonial entrance (vestibule ) to the Great Palace of Constantinople in the Byzantine period. The name, which means "the Bronze Gate", was given to it either because of the bronze portals or from the gilded bronze tiles used in its roof. The interior was lavishly decorated with marble and mosaics, and the exterior façade featured a number of statues. Most prominent was an icon of Christ which became a major iconodule symbol during the Byzantine Iconoclasm , and a chapel dedicated to the Christ Chalkites was erected in the 10th century next to the gate. The gate itself seems to have been demolished in the 13th century, but the chapel survived until the early 19th century
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Palace Of Blachernae
The PALACE OF BLACHERNAE (Greek : τὸ ἐν Βλαχέρναις Παλάτιον) was an imperial Byzantine residence in the suburb of Blachernae
Blachernae
, located in the northwestern section of Constantinople (modern Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
). The area of the palace is now mostly overbuilt, and only literary sources are available as to its description. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 External links HISTORYThe Palace of Blachernae
Blachernae
was constructed on the northern slopes of the Sixth Hill of the city in circa 500. The hill itself was partially remodelled, particularly in later times, and a number of terraces created to support the various buildings comprising the palace complex
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Simeon I Of Bulgaria
SIMEON (also SYMEON) I THE GREAT (Bulgarian : Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927, during the First Bulgarian Empire . Simeon's successful campaigns against the Byzantines , Magyars and Serbs led Bulgaria to its greatest territorial expansion ever, making it the most powerful state in contemporary Eastern Europe . His reign was also a period of unmatched cultural prosperity and enlightenment later deemed the Golden Age of Bulgarian culture . During Simeon's rule, Bulgaria spread over a territory between the Aegean , the Adriatic and the Black Sea , and the new Bulgarian capital Preslav was said to rival Constantinople
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First Bulgarian Empire
The FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE ( Old Bulgarian : ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe
Europe
between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded circa 681 when Bulgar tribes led by Asparukh moved to the north-eastern Balkans
Balkans
. There they secured Byzantine recognition of their right to settle south of the Danube
Danube
by defeating – possibly with the help of local South Slavic tribes – the Byzantine army led by Constantine IV . At the height of its power, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
spread from the Danube
Danube
Bend to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and from the Dnieper River to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Zoe Karbonopsina
ZOE KARBONOPSINA, also KARVOUNOPSINA or CARBONOPSINA, i.e., "with the Coal-Black Eyes" (Greek : Ζωή Καρβωνοψίνα, Zōē Karbōnopsina), was an empress consort and regent of the Byzantine empire. She was the fourth wife of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise and the mother of Constantine VII . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Rise to Power * 3 Reign * 4 Overthrowing * 5 References EARLY LIFE Zoe Karbonopsina was a relative of the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor and a niece of the admiral Himerios . Desperate to sire a son, Leo VI married his mistress Zoe on 9 January 906, only after she had given birth to the future Constantine VII at the end of 905. However, this constituted his fourth marriage, and was therefore un-canonical in the eyes of the Eastern Orthodox Church , which had already been reluctant to accept his third marriage to Eudokia Baïana , who died in childbirth in 901
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Patrikios
The PATRICIANS (from Latin : patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome . Although the distinction was highly significant in the early Republic , its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
(494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire , membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the fall of the Western Empire it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of leading burgess families in many medieval Italian republics , such as Venice and Genoa , and subsequently "patrician" became a vague term used for aristocrats and the higher bourgeoisie in many countries. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Empire * 2.1 Status * 2.2 Patricians vs
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Leo VI The Wise
LEO VI, called THE WISE or THE PHILOSOPHER (Greek : Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 886 to 912. The second ruler of the Macedonian dynasty
Macedonian dynasty
(although his parentage is unclear), he was very well-read, leading to his epithet. During his reign, the renaissance of letters, begun by his predecessor Basil I , continued; but the Empire also saw several military defeats in the Balkans against Bulgaria and against the Arabs in Sicily
Sicily
and the Aegean . His reign also witnessed the formal discontinuation of several ancient Roman institutions, such as the Roman consul
Roman consul
and Senate (in this period also known as the Byzantine Senate ), which continued to exist in name only and lost much of their original functions and powers
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Byzantine
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Strateia
STRATEIA (Greek : στρατεία) is a term used in the Byzantine Empire , which according to the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium "signified enrollment into state (civil or military) or ecclesiastical service and the attendant obligations". The term is the direct analogue of the Latin term militia, which applied to all categories of state officials already under the late Roman Empire . The most common usage of the term in middle Byzantine times was in the military sphere: the holder of a strateia, or stratiotes (στρατιώτης), was obliged either to provide military service himself, or to provide money for the upkeep of a soldier, either as an individual or as a group/community (syndotai, "co-givers"). By the 10th century, the strateia had evolved from being a personal, hereditary duty of the stratiotes and his family, to a duty attached to the military lands (stratiotika ktemata) that were then allocated to the individual stratiotai
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