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John Adams
John Adams
John Adams
(October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father
Founding Father
who served as the first Vice President (1789–97) and second President of the United States (1797–1801). He was a lawyer, diplomat, political theorist, and a leader of the movement for American independence from Great Britain. He was also a dedicated diarist and correspondent, particularly with his wife and closest advisor Abigail. Adams collaborated with his cousin, revolutionary leader Samuel Adams, but he established his own prominence prior to the American Revolution
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Congestive Heart Failure
Heart
Heart
failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.[9][10][11] Signs and symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling.[2] The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying down, and may wake the person at night.[2] A limited ability to exercise is also a common feature.[12] Chest pain, including angina, does not typically occur due to heart failure.[13] Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease includ
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(/ˈæmstərdæm/;[9][10][11] Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands,[12] although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague.[13] Amsterdam
Amsterdam
has a population of 851,373 within the city proper, 1,351,587 in the urban area,[14] and 2,410,960 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area.[8] The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, which is Haarlem. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million.[15] Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme,[16] indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Kingdom Of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,[1] was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain
Great Britain
and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands. It also did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster
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Right To Counsel
Right to counsel means a defendant has a right to have the assistance of counsel (i.e., lawyers), and if the defendant cannot afford a lawyer, requires that the government appoint one or pay the defendant's legal expenses. The right to counsel is generally regarded as a constituent of the right to a fair trial. Historically, however, not all countries have always recognized the right to counsel. The right is often included in national constitutions
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Presumption Of Innocence
The presumption of innocence, sometimes referred to by the Latin expression ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat (the burden of proof is on the one who declares, not on one who denies), is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty. In many states, presumption of innocence is a legal right of the accused in a criminal trial, and it is an international human right under the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 11. Under the presumption of innocence, the legal burden of proof is thus on the prosecution, which must collect and present compelling evidence to the trier of fact. The trier of fact (a judge or a jury) is thus restrained and ordered by law to consider only actual evidence and testimony presented in court. The prosecution must, in most cases prove that the accused is guilty beyond reasonable doubt
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British America
British America
British America
refers to the English territories in North America (including Bermuda), Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana
Guyana
from 1607 to 1783. Formally, the British colonies in North America
North America
were known as British America
British America
and the British West Indies
British West Indies
until 1776, when the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
declared their independence and formed the United States
United States
of America.[1] After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Britain's continental North American possessions
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Province Of Massachusetts Bay
The Province of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay[2] was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776. It was chartered on October 7, 1691 by William III and Mary II, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The charter took effect on May 14, 1692, and included the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The modern Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the direct successor. Maine has been a separate U.S. state since 1820, and Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick are now Canadian provinces, having been part of the colony only until 1697. The name Massachusetts
Massachusetts
comes from the Massachusett
Massachusett
Indians, an Algonquian tribe
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Samuel Holten
Samuel Holten (June 9, 1738 – January 2, 1816) was an American physician and statesman from Danvers, Massachusetts. He represented Massachusetts as a delegate to the Continental Congress and a member of the United States House of Representatives. Biography[edit] Holten was born in Danvers, Massachusetts on June 9, 1738. he was educated locally, studied medicine and established a practice in Gloucester. He soon returned to Danvers, where he continued the practice of medicine.During the American Revolution Holten supported the Patriot cause. Holten served in the militia as a major in the First Essex County Regiment
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Founding Father
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, (i.e., political system form of government, and constitution), of the country
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Harvard College
Harvard College
Harvard College
is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States[2] and one of the most prestigious in the world.[3]Contents1 History 2 Academics 3 House system 4 Athletics 5 Student organizations 6 Notable alumni 7 Fictional alumni 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: History of Harvard UniversityView of the ancient buildings belonging to Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., New York Public LibraryView of freshman dormitories in Harvard YardThe school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court (colonial legislature, second oldest in British America) of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student
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Charles W. F. Dumas
Charles William Frédéric Dumas (1721–1796) was a man of letters living in the Dutch Republic who served as an American diplomat during the American Revolution. He was born in German Ansbach to French parents, apparently lived in Switzerland for a time, and moved to the Netherlands around 1750.[1] He befriended Benjamin Franklin when the latter was in Holland at the beginning of the American Revolution, and when Franklin chaired the Committee of correspondence, they employed Dumas as a secret agent to aid American interests in Europe. When John Adams became minister plenipotentiary to Holland, Dumas acted as his secretary and translator. When Adams went to Paris, Dumas acted as chargé d'affaires ad interim from the United States. Dumas died soon after 1794.[2] In 1775, Dumas devised the first diplomatic cipher used by the Continental Congress and Benjamin Franklin for secret correspondence with agents in Europe
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Arthur Lee (diplomat)
Arthur Lee (20 December 1740 – 12 December 1792) was a physician and opponent of slavery in colonial Virginia
Virginia
in North America who served as an American diplomat during the American Revolutionary War. He was educated in medicine and law at the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
and in London, respectively. After passing the bar, he practiced law in London for several years. He stayed in London during the Revolutionary War, representing the colonies to Britain and France and also serving as an American spy to track their activities. After his return to Virginia, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress.Contents1 Life 2 Ancestry 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife[edit] Born in Virginia, Arthur Lee was the youngest son of Hon. Thomas Lee (1690–1750) and Hannah Harrison Ludwell
Hannah Harrison Ludwell
(1701–1750)
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Congress Of The Confederation
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America
United States of America
that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789. A unicameral body with legislative and executive function, it comprised delegates appointed by the legislatures of the several states. Each state delegation had one vote
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