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Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach[a] (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos
Brandenburg Concertos
and the Goldberg Variations, and vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.[3] The Bach family
Bach family
already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. Having become an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother, after which he continued his musical formation in Lüneburg
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Collegium Musicum
The Collegium Musicum
Collegium Musicum
was one of several types of musical societies that arose in German and German-Swiss cities and towns during the Reformation and thrived into the mid-18th century. Generally, while societies such as the Kantorei (de) (chorale) cultivated vocal music for church performance and the convivium musicum discussed musical philosophy over a banquet, the collegia musica performed both vocal and instrumental music for pleasure; they focused on instrumental music as it rose in stature during the Baroque era. Though closed amateur societies in concept, collegia frequently included professionals to fill out the music and admitted non-members to performances. Moreover, they often provided music for church, state, and academic occasions and gained the patronage of leading citizens
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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List Of Chamber Music Works By Johann Sebastian Bach
Sebastian
Sebastian
may refer to:Contents1 People1.1 Musicians2 Music 3 Characters 4 Places 5 Films 6 Literature 7 See alsoPeople[edit] Sebastian
Sebastian
(name), including a list of persons with the name Sebastián (sculptor)
Sebastián (sculptor)
(born 1947), artist based in Mexico Sebastian I of Portugal
Sebastian I of Portugal
(1554–1578), King of Portugal Mr
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Saxe-Weimar
Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
(German: Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia. The chief town and capital was Weimar
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List Of Keyboard And Lute Compositions By Johann Sebastian Bach
Composition or Compositions may refer to:Contents1 Arts 2 Computer science 3 Mathematics 4 History 5 Other 6 See alsoArts[edit] Composition doll, a doll made of a wood based composite material Composition roller, cast from a hide glue and molasses used in brayers and inking rollers for letterpress and other relief printing Composition studies, the professional field of writing instruction
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Keyboard Instrument
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano, organ, and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, and carillons, which are usually housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings.[1] Today, the term keyboard often refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may also be used to control dynamics, phrasing, shading, articulation, and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument.[1] Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be firmly established
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Counterpoint
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.[1] It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque
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Motif (music)
In music, a motif  (pronunciation) (help·info) is a short musical idea,[5] a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity".[3] The Encyclopédie de la Pléiade regards it as a "melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic cell", whereas the 1958 Encyclopédie Fasquelle maintains that it may contain one or more cells, though it remains the smallest analyzable element or phrase within a subject.[6] It is commonly regarded as the shortest subdivision of a theme or phrase that still maintains its identity as a musical idea
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Harmony
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches (tones, notes), or chords.[1] The study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them.[2] Harmony
Harmony
is often said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect.[3] Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony. In popular and jazz harmony, chords are named by their root plus various terms and characters indicating their qualities. In many types of music, notably baroque, romantic, modern, and jazz, chords are often augmented with "tensions"
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Cantor (Christianity)
In Christianity, the cantor, sometimes called the precentor or the protopsaltes (Greek: πρωτοψάλτης, lit. 'first singer'; from Greek: ψάλτης, translit. psaltes, lit. 'singer') is the chief singer, and usually instructor, employed at a church, a cathedral or monastery with responsibilities for the ecclesiastical choir and the preparation of liturgy. The cantor's duties and qualifications have varied considerably according to time, place, and rite, and often its prestige was so high that it came close to the highest offices in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, for instance monastic cantors promoted to the office of an abbot or abbess
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Bach (other)
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685–1750) was a famous German composer of the Baroque period. Bach may also refer to:Contents1 Broadcasting 2 Organizations 3 People 4 Places 5 Other uses 6 See alsoBroadcasting[edit]WBQK, a radio station licensed to West Point, Virginia, United States, known as Bach FM WLTT, a radio station licensed to Carolina Beach, North Carolina, United States, known as Bach FM from 2011 to 2013Organizations[edit]The Brown Association for Cooperative Housing, in Providence, Rhode Island, United States Vincent Bach Corporation, a brass instrument manufacturerPeople[edit]Bach
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Chamber Music
Chamber music
Chamber music
is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a small number of performers, with one performer to a part (in contrast to orchestral music, in which each string part is played by a number of performers). However, by convention, it usually does not include solo instrument performances. Because of its intimate nature, chamber music has been described as "the music of friends".[1] For more than 100 years, chamber music was played primarily by amateur musicians in their homes, and even today, when chamber music performance has migrated from the home to the concert hall, many musicians, amateur and professional, still play chamber music for their own pleasure
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Protestantism
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][3][a] It originated with the Reformation,[b] a movement against what its followers con
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Augustus III Of Poland
Augustus III (Polish: August III Sas, Lithuanian: Augustas III; 17 October 1696 – 5 October 1763) was King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (German: Friedrich August II). The only legitimate son of Augustus II of Poland, he followed his father’s example by joining the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in 1712
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Bach Revival
The general discussion of how to perform music from ancient or earlier times did not become an important subject of interest until the 19th century, when Europeans began looking to ancient culture generally, and musicians began to discover the musical riches from earlier centuries. The idea of performing early music more "authentically", with a sense of incorporating performance practice, was more completely established in the 20th century, creating a modern early music revival that continues today.Contents1 Study and performance of ancient music before the 19th century 2 19th century 3 Early 20th century 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksStudy and performance of ancient music before the 19th century[edit] Musicians working before 1800 were already beginning to study ancient music
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