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Johann Philipp Reis
JOHANN PHILIPP REIS (German: ; January 7, 1834 – January 14, 1874) was a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone , today called the Reis telephone . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 The telephone * 2.1 Previous experimenters * 2.2 Shortcomings * 2.3 Publication * 3 Final days * 4 Recognition and technological assessment * 4.1 Johann-Philipp-Reis Preis (Award) * 5 Telephone
Telephone
invention controversies * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION Reis' home in Friedrichsdorf, now a museum Reis was born in Gelnhausen , Germany
Germany
, the son of Marie Katharine (Glöckner) and Karl Sigismund Reis, a master baker. His father belonged to the Evangelical Lutheran church
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Silvanus Phillips Thompson
SILVANUS PHILLIPS THOMPSON FRS (19 June 1851 – 12 June 1916) was a professor of physics at the City and Guilds Technical College in Finsbury , England. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1891 and was known for his work as an electrical engineer and as an author. Thompson's most enduring publication is his 1910 text Calculus Made Easy , which teaches the fundamentals of infinitesimal calculus , and is still in print. Thompson also wrote a popular physics text, Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism, as well as biographies of Lord Kelvin and Michael Faraday . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Literary works * 3 Lectures * 4 Honours * 5 Inventions * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYSilvanus Thompson was born in the year of the Great Exhibition of 1851 to a Quaker family in York , England. His father served as a master at the Quaker Bootham School in York and he also studied there
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom" ANTHEM: " Deutschlandlied
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London
LONDON (/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium . London's ancient core, the City of London
London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Curriculum Vitae
A CURRICULUM VITAE (English: /kəˈrɪkjʊləm ˈviːtaɪ, -ˈwiːtaɪ, -ˈvaɪtiː/ ) (often shortened CV or VITA) is a written overview of a person's experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity. It is akin to a résumé in North America. In some countries, a CV is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview . CVs may also be requested for applicants to postsecondary programs, scholarships, grants and bursaries. In the 2010s, some applicants provide an electronic text of their CV to employers using email , an online employment website or using a job-oriented social networking service ' website , such as LinkedIn . CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Etymology, spellings and pronunciation * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CONTENTS This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Tuberculosis
TUBERCULOSIS (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
generally affects the lungs , but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis . About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those infected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum , fever , night sweats , and weight loss . The historical term "CONSUMPTION" came about due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease
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Gießen
GIESSEN, spelled GIEßEN in German (German pronunciation: ), is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse
Hesse
, capital of both the district of Giessen
Giessen
and the administrative region of Giessen . The population is approximately 78,000, with roughly 24,000 university students. The name comes from Giezzen, as it was first referred to in 1197, which refers to the position of the town between several rivers, lakes and streams. The largest river in Giessen
Giessen
is the Lahn
Lahn
, which divides the town in two parts (west and east), roughly 50 kilometres (31 miles) north of Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
. In 1969, the town hosted the ninth Hessentag
Hessentag
state festival
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Interference Proceeding
An INTERFERENCE PROCEEDING, also known as a PRIORITY CONTEST, is an inter partes proceeding to determine the priority issues of multiple patent applications . Until the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act of 2011, it was a unique procedure in the patent law of the United States . Unlike in most other countries which had a first-to-file system, the former first-to-invent system of the U.S. allowed a party which has failed to file a patent application on time to challenge the inventorship of another party which had a granted or pending patent, if certain requirements were met
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Amos Dolbear
AMOS EMERSON DOLBEAR (November 10, 1837 – February 23, 1910) was an American physicist and inventor . Dolbear researched electrical spark conversion into sound waves and electrical impulses . He was a professor at University of Kentucky in Lexington from 1868 until 1874. In 1874 he became the chair of the physics department at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts . In 1899 one of his patents was purchased in an unsuccessful attempt to interfere with Guglielmo Marconi 's activities in the United States. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Publications * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYDolbear was a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University , in Delaware, Ohio . While a student at Ohio Wesleyan, he had made a "talking telegraph" and invented a receiver containing two features of the modern telephone: a permanent magnet and a metallic diaphragm that he made from a tintype
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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
. The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Canadian Parliament
Initially assumed some jurisdiction from: * Parliament of the Province of Canada * General Assembly of Nova Scotia * New Brunswick Legislature
New Brunswick Legislature
Later added some jurisdiction from: * Hudson\'s Bay Company *
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United States Patent And Trademark Office
The UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification. The USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates solely on fees collected by its users, and not on taxpayer dollars". Its "operating structure is like a business in that it receives requests for services—applications for patents and trademark registrations—and charges fees projected to cover the cost of performing the services provide". The USPTO is based in Alexandria, Virginia , after a 2005 move from the Crystal City area of neighboring Arlington , Virginia
Virginia

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Francis Blake (telephone)
FRANCIS BLAKE, JR. (1850 – 1913) was born in Needham, Massachusetts , the son of Caroline Burling (Trumbull) and Francis Blake, Sr. and died in Weston, Massachusetts . In 1877 Francis Blake invented a carbon microphone for use in the telephone, shortly after Thomas Edison invented a microphone that also used carbon contacts. Blake used a carbon button design that initially would not stay in adjustment, but with later improvements proved to be workable. Alexander Graham Bell hired Blake and put him to work with Emile Berliner who also invented a carbon microphone. The improved Berliner-Blake microphone was standard with the Bell company for many years. Blake worked on the United States Coast Survey from his teenage years through early adulthood (1866-1878). He was a physicist and an amateur photographer
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