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Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
(4 August 1913 – 14 October 1943) was a German SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
(Second Lieutenant) and deputy commandant of Sobibór
Sobibór
extermination camp. Niemann directly perpetrated the genocide of Jews
Jews
and other peoples at Sobibór
Sobibór
during the Operation Reinhard phase of The Holocaust.[1] Niemann joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1931 as member number 753,836 and the SS in 1934 as member number 270,600. He first served at Bełżec extermination camp, at the rank of SS-Oberscharführer
SS-Oberscharführer
(Staff Sergeant), where he commanded Camp II, the extermination area.[2] He then was transferred to Sobibór
Sobibór
extermination camp
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Willi Mentz
SS- Unterscharführer
Unterscharführer
Willi Mentz
Willi Mentz
(30 April 1904 – 25 June 1978) was a member of the German SS in World War II and a Holocaust perpetrator who worked at Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camp during the Operation Reinhard phase of the Holocaust in Poland. Mentz was known as "Frankenstein" at the camp.[1][2] Background[edit] Born in Schönhagen near Brandenburg, Mentz joined the NSDAP
NSDAP
in 1932. He was a sawmill worker and milkman before joining a police detachment. In 1940, following the outbreak of war, he handled cows and pigs at Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre
Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre
in the course of Action T4, and in 1941 was transferred to Hadamar gassing facility near Limburg, where he worked in the food garden until early summer 1942
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SS-Oberscharführer
Oberscharführer
Oberscharführer
([ˈoːbɐ.ʃaːɐ̯.fyːʀɐ], "senior squad leader") was a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
paramilitary rank that existed between 1932 and 1945.[1] Translated as “senior squad leader”, Oberscharführer was first used as a rank of the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) and was created due to an expansion of the enlisted positions required by growing SA membership in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The SA rank of Oberscharführer
Oberscharführer
was senior to Scharführer
Scharführer
and junior to the rank of Truppführer.[2] Since early ranks of the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) were identical to the ranks of SA, Oberscharführer
Oberscharführer
was created as an SS rank at the same time the position was created within the SA
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Erich Fuchs
The given name Eric, Erik, or Erick is derived from the Old Norse
Old Norse
name Eiríkr (or Eríkr in Eastern Old Norse
Old Norse
due to monophthongization). The first element, ei- is derived either from the older Proto-Norse *aina(z), meaning "one, alone, unique",[1] as in the form Æinrikr explicitly, or from *aiwa(z) "everlasting, eternity".[2] The second element -ríkr stems either from *ríks "king, ruler" (cf. Gothic reiks) or from the therefrom derived *ríkijaz "kingly, powerful, rich, prince".[3] The name is thus usually taken to mean "sole ruler, autocrat" or "eternal ruler, ever powerful".[4] The most common spelling in Scandinavia is Erik. In Norway, another form of the name (which has kept the Old Norse
Old Norse
diphthong) Eirik is also commonly used.[5] In Finland, the form Erkki is also used. The modern Icelandic version is Eiríkur,[6][7][8] while the modern Faroese version is Eirikur
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Paul Bredow
Paul Bredow
Paul Bredow
(1902 – December 1945) was an SS commander of Nazi Germany and a Holocaust
Holocaust
perpetrator. He worked at Treblinka extermination camp during the Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
phase of the Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland.[1][2] Bredow was from German Silesia (Schlesien). He served at Grafeneck and Hartheim Euthanasia Centres. He came to Treblinka
Treblinka
together with Franz Stangl in the first group of German SS. He served there until spring 1943. Bredow was the head of the Kommando Rot clothing sorting unit at the Barracks A in the camp's zone 2 Auffanglager, remembered for his pathological cruelty by survivors. In spring 1943 he was transferred to Sobibor, where he was put in charge of the "Lazarett"
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Karl Steubl
SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Karl Steubl, Steubel, or Steibel[1] (25 October 1910 – 21 September 1945) was a Nazi, perpetrator of euthanasia programme dubbed Action T4, and commander of transportation at the Sobibór extermination camp
Sobibór extermination camp
during Operation Reinhard, the most deadly phase of the Holocaust. Arrested after the war, Steubl committed suicide in Linz, Austria.[2] Career highlights[edit] Before his last assignment at Sobibor in occupied Poland, Steubl was a senior male nurse at Schloss Hartheim, the biggest mass extermination centre outside Eastern Europe set up at Alkoven
Alkoven
in Upper Austria
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Westoverledingen
Westoverledingen is a municipality in the Leer district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.v t eTowns and municipalities in Leer (district)Borkum Brinkum Bunde Detern Filsum Firrel Hesel Holtland Jemgum Leer Moormerland Neukamperfehn Nortmoor Ostrhauderfehn Rhauderfehn Schwerinsdorf Uplengen Weener WestoverledingenReferences[edit]^ Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie Niedersachsen, 102 Bevölkerung - Basis Zensus 2011, Stand 31. Dezember 2015 (Tabelle K1020014)Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 235199550 ISNI: 0000 0004 0588 2436 GND: 4334843-9This Leer (district) location article is a stub
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Sonderkommando
Sonderkommandos (German: [ˈzɔndɐkɔˌmando], special unit) were work units made up of German Nazi death camp prisoners
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Dutch Jews
Most history of the Jews
Jews
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
was generated between the end of the 16th century and World War II. The area now known as the Netherlands
Netherlands
was once part of the Spanish Empire but in 1581, the northern Dutch provinces declared independence. A principal motive was a wish to practice Protestant Christianity, then forbidden under Spanish rule, and so religious tolerance was effectively an important constitutional element of the newly independent state
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Kapo (concentration Camp)
A kapo or prisoner functionary (German: Funktionshäftling, see § Etymology) was a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
who was assigned by the SS guards to supervise forced labor or carry out administrative tasks. Also called "prisoner self-administration", the prisoner functionary system minimized costs by allowing camps to function with fewer SS personnel. The system was designed to turn victim against victim, as the prisoner functionaries were pitted against their fellow prisoners in order to maintain the favor of their SS overseers. If they were derelict, they would be returned to the status of ordinary prisoners and be subject to other kapos. Many prisoner functionaries were recruited from the ranks of violent criminal gangs rather than from the more numerous political, religious, and racial prisoners; such criminal convicts were known for their brutality toward other prisoners
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SS-Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
([ˈʊntɐ.ʃtʊʁm.fyːʀɐ], "junior storm leader") was a paramilitary rank of the German Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) first created in July 1934.[1] The rank can trace its origins to the older SA rank of Sturmführer which had existed since the founding of the SA in 1921
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Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluːɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( listen); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP) of Germany. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and one of the people most directly responsible for the Holocaust. As a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service. He studied agronomy in university, and joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1923 and the SS in 1925. In 1929, he was appointed Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
by Hitler. Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere 290-man battalion into a million-strong paramilitary group, and, following Hitler's orders, set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps
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Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
(Hebrew: יצחק ארד‎) (né Icchak Rudnicki) (born November 11, 1926),[1] is an Israeli historian, author, retired IDF brigadier general and a former Soviet partisan, director of Yad Vashem from 1972 to 1993. He specialised in the history of the Holocaust.Contents1 Early life and war experiences 2 Academic career 3 War crimes
War crimes
investigation in Lithuania 4 Names 5 Bibliography in English5.1 As author 5.2 As editor6 References 7 External linksEarly life and war experiences[edit] Arad was born Icchak Rudnicki on November 11, 1926, in what was then Święciany in the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
(now Švenčionys, Lithuania). In his youth, he belonged to the Zionist youth movement Ha-No'ar ha-Tsiyyoni. During the war – according to Arad's 1993 interview with Harry J
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