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Jet-engine
A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines (turbojets, turbofans, ramjets, and pulse jets) and non-airbreathing jet engines (such as rocket engines). In general, jet engines are combustion engines. In common parlance, the term jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion airbreathing jet engine. These typically feature a rotating air compressor powered by a turbine, with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle — this process is known as the Brayton thermodynamic cycle. Jet aircraft
Jet aircraft
use such engines for long-distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use more complex high-bypass turbofan engines
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Aircraft Engine
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power
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Tsu-11
The Ishikawajima Tsu-11 was a motorjet produced in small numbers in Japan
Japan
in the closing stages of World War II. It was principally designed to propel the Japanese Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka
Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka
flying bomb, a kamikaze weapon.Contents1 Design and development 2 Applications 3 See also 4 ReferencesDesign and development[edit] The Tsu-11 used a four-cylinder inverted inline Hitachi Hatsukaze
Hitachi Hatsukaze
Toku Model 13 piston engine — a license-built version of the German Hirth HM 504 inverted, inline-four cylinder air-cooled engine, with the "model 13" version indicating its adaptation to drive a single-stage compressor
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ETOPS
ETOPS
ETOPS
(/iːˈtɒps/) is an aviation acronym for Extended Operations. The term used to signify Extended Range Operation with Two-Engine Airplanes but the meaning was changed by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) when regulations were broadened to include aircraft with more than two engines.[1] It refers to the standards and recommended practices (SARPS) issued by ICAO
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History Of The Jet Engine
The jet engine has a long history, from early steam devices in the 2nd century BC to the modern turbofans and scramjets.Contents1 Precursors 2 Pre World War II 3 Post World War II 4 See also 5 ReferencesPrecursors[edit] Jet engines can be dated back to the invention of the aeolipile around 150 BC. This device used steam power directed through two nozzles so as to cause a sphere to spin rapidly on its axis.[1] So far as is known, it was not used for supplying mechanical power, and the potential practical applications of this invention were not recognized. It was simply considered a curiosity. Archytas, the founder of mathematical mechanics, as described in the writings of Aulus Gellius five centuries after him, was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device
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Timeline Of Jet Power
This article outlines the important developments in the history of the development of the air-breathing (duct) jet engine. Although the most common type, the gas turbine powered jet engine, was certainly a 20th-century invention, many of the needed advances in theory and technology leading to this invention were made well before this time. The jet engine was clearly an idea whose time had come. Frank Whittle submitted his first patent in 1930. By the late 1930s there were six teams chasing development, three in Germany, two in the UK and one in Hungary. By 1942 they had been joined by another half dozen British companies, three more in the United States based on British technology, and early efforts in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Japan based on British and German designs respectively
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Aeolipile
An aeolipile (or aeolipyle, or eolipile), also known as a Hero's engine, is a simple bladeless radial steam turbine which spins when the central water container is heated
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Gunpowder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Rocket
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin")[nb 1][1] is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine
Rocket engine
exhaust is formed entirely from propellant carried within the rocket before use.[2] Rocket
Rocket
engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward simply by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, and can therefore work in the vacuum of space. In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere. Multistage rockets are capable of attaining escape velocity from Earth and therefore can achieve unlimited maximum altitude. Compared with airbreathing engines, rockets are lightweight and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations
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Fireworks
Fireworks
Fireworks
are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics), a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions
Fireworks competitions
are also regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks
Fireworks
take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials (confetti for example). They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and silver
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Secondo Campini
Secondo Campini (August 28, 1904 – February 7, 1980) was an Italian engineer and one of the pioneers of the jet engine. Campini was born at Bologna, Emilia-Romagna. In 1931 he wrote a proposal for the Italian Air Ministry on the value of jet propulsion and in 1932 demonstrated a jet-powered boat in Venice. With support of the Air Ministry, he began work with Italian aircraft manufacturer Caproni
Caproni
to develop a jet plane, the Campini Caproni
Caproni
CC.2, which first flew in 1940. The "Thermojet" that Campini developed to propel this aircraft is substantially different from the jet engines of today. Campini's engine used an ordinary piston engine to compress air which was then mixed with fuel and ignited
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Motorjet
A motorjet is a rudimentary type of jet engine which is sometimes referred to as thermojet, a term now commonly used to describe a particular and completely unrelated pulsejet design.Contents1 Design 2 History 3 Notes 4 External linksDesign[edit] At the heart the motorjet is an ordinary piston engine (hence, the term motor), but instead of (or sometimes, as well as) driving a propeller, it drives a compressor. The compressed air is channeled into a combustion chamber, where fuel is injected and ignited. The high temperatures generated by the combustion cause the gases in the chamber to expand and escape at high velocity from the exhaust, creating a thermal reactive force that provides useful thrust. Motorjet
Motorjet
engines provide greater thrust than a propeller alone mounted on a piston engine; this has been successfully demonstrated in a number of different aircraft
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Caproni Campini N.1
The Caproni
Caproni
Campini N.1, also known as the C.C.2, was an experimental jet aircraft built in the 1930s by Italian aircraft manufacturer Caproni. The N.1 first flew in 1940 and was briefly regarded as the first successful jet-powered aircraft in history, before news emerged of the German Heinkel He 178's first flight a year earlier.[1] During 1931, Italian aeronautics engineer Secondo Campini submitted his studies on jet propulsion, including a proposal for a so-called thermo-jet to power an aircraft.[citation needed] Following a high-profile demonstration of a jet-powered boat in Venice, which was the world's first vehicle to harness jet propulsion, Campini was rewarded with an initial contract issued by the Italian government to develop and manufacture his envisioned engine. During 1934, the Regia Aeronautica (the Italian Air Force) granted its approval to proceed with the production of a pair of jet-powered prototype aircraft
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Ohka
The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka
(櫻花, Ōka, "cherry blossom"; 桜花 in modern orthography) was a purpose-built, rocket-powered human-guided kamikaze attack aircraft[1] employed by Japan against Allied ships towards the end of World War II. United States sailors gave the aircraft the nickname Baka (ばか, "fool" or "idiot").[2][3]Contents1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Variants 4 Surviving examples4.1 India 4.2 Japan 4.3 United Kingdom 4.4 United States5 Replicas on display5.1 United States6 Specifications (Model 11) 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 Bibliography9 External linksDesign and development[edit] The MXY-7 Navy Suicide Attacker Ohka was a manned flying bomb that was usually carried underneath a Mitsubishi G4M2e Model 24J "Betty" bomber to within range of its target
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De Havilland Ghost
The de Havilland Ghost (originally Halford H-2) was the de Havilland Engine Company's second turbojet engine design to enter production and the world's first gas turbine engine to enter airline (BOAC) service. A scaled-up development of the Goblin, the Ghost powered the de Havilland Venom, de Havilland Comet and SAAB 29 Tunnan.[1] On 23 March 1948, John Cunningham, flying a modified Vampire Mk I, which had been furnished with extended wing tips, powered by a Ghost engine, achieved a new world altitude record, having attained a maximum altitude of 59,446 ft (18,119 m).[2]Contents1 Design and development 2 Variants 3 Applications 4 Specifications (Ghost 50)4.1 General characteristics 4.2 Components 4.3 Performance5 See also 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 Bibliography7 External linksDesign and development[edit]de Havilland Ghost 50 at RAF Museum CosfordThe Ghost originated when de Havilland started work on what was to become the Comet in 1943
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Kamikaze
Kamikaze
Kamikaze
(神風, [kamikaꜜ͜dze] ( listen); "divine wind" or "spirit wind"), officially Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (特別攻撃隊, " Special
Special
Attack Unit"), were a part of the Japanese Special
Special
Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional air attacks. About 3,800 kamikaze pilots died during the war, and more than 7,000 naval personnel were killed by kamikaze attacks.[1] Kamikaze
Kamikaze
aircraft were essentially pilot-guided explosive missiles, purpose-built or converted from conventional aircraft
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