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Jerusalem Artichoke
The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
artichoke ( Helianthus
Helianthus
tuberosus), also called sunroot, sunchoke, earth apple, or topinambour, is a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, and found from eastern Canada
Canada
and Maine
Maine
west to North Dakota, and south to northern Florida
Florida
and Texas.[2] It is also cultivated widely across the temperate zone for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable.[3]Contents1 Description 2 Food use 3 Etymology 4 History 5 Cultivation and use5.1 Fermented products6 Marketing scheme 7 References 8 External linksDescription[edit] Helianthus
Helianthus
tuberosus is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1.5–3 m (4 ft 11 in–9 ft 10 in) tall with opposite leaves on the upper part of the stem but alternate below.[4] The leaves have a rough, hairy texture
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
(DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes
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Indigenous Peoples Of The Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas
Americas
and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.[24] Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Inulin
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants,[1] industrially most often extracted from chicory.[2] The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans. Inulin
Inulin
is used by some plants as a means of storing energy and is typically found in roots or rhizomes. Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store other forms of carbohydrate such as starch
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Monosaccharide
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.[1] They are fundamental units of carbohydrates and cannot be further hydrolyzed to simpler compounds. The general formula is C nH 2nO n. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, and crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and galactose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (so, all of the carbons except for the primary and terminal carbon) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms, all with the same chemical formula
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Fructose
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into blood during digestion. Fructose
Fructose
was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847.[4][5] The name “fructose” was coined in 1857 by the English chemist, William Allen Miller.[6] Pure, dry fructose is a sweet, white, odorless, crystalline solid, and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars.[7] Fructose
Fructose
is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables. Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize. Crystalline fructose
Crystalline fructose
is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity
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Sucrose
β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside; β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside; α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside , dodecacarbon monodecahydrate ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)IdentifiersCAS Number57-50-1 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive imageChEBICHEBI:17992 YChEMBLChEMBL253582 YChemSpider5768 YDrugBankDB02772 YECHA InfoCard 100.000.304EC Number 200-334-9IUPHAR/BPS5411 PubChem CID5988
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Folk Remedy
Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine
(also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‬  Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎  al-Quds)[note 2] is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
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Disc Floret
Asteroideae
Asteroideae
Lindley Barnadesioideae
Barnadesioideae
Bremer & Jansen Carduoideae
Carduoideae
Sweet Cichorioideae
Cichorioideae
Chevallier Corymbioideae
Corymbioideae
Panero & Funk Famatinanthoideae S.E
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Artichoke
The globe artichoke ( Cynara
Cynara
cardunculus var. scolymus)[1] is a variety of a species of thistle cultivated as a food. The edible portion of the plant consists of the flower buds before the flowers come into bloom. The budding artichoke flower-head is a cluster of many budding small flowers (an inflorescence), together with many bracts, on an edible base. Once the buds bloom, the structure changes to a coarse, barely edible form. Another variety of the same species is the cardoon, a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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