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Jean De La Forêt
Jean de La Forêt, also Jean de La Forest
Jean de La Forest
or Jehan de la Forest (died 1537) was the first official French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, serving from 1534 to 1537.[1] Antonio Rincon
Antonio Rincon
had preceded him as an envoy to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1530 to 1533
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Corfu
Corfu
Corfu
or Kerkyra (/kɔːrˈfuː, -fjuː/; Greek: Κέρκυρα, translit. Kérkyra, [ˈcercira]; Ancient Greek: Κόρκυρα, translit. Kórkyra; Latin: Corcyra; Italian: Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands,[3] and, including its small satellite islands, forms the northwesternmost part of Greece.[4] The island is part of the Corfu regional unit, and is administered as a single municipality, which also includes the smaller islands of Ereikoussa, Mathraki
Mathraki
and Othonoi. The municipality has an area of 610,9 km2, the island proper 592,8 km2.[5] The principal city of the island and seat of the municipality (pop. 32,095) is also named Corfu.[6] Corfu
Corfu
is home to the Ionian University. The island is bound up with the history of Greece
Greece
from the beginnings of Greek mythology
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Levant
 Cyprus  Israel  Iraq  Jordan  Lebanon  Palestine  Syria   Turkey
Turkey
(Hatay Province)Broader definition Egypt  Greece   Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Libya)   Turkey
Turkey
(whole territory)Population 44,550,926[a]Demonym LevantineLanguages Levantine Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Armenian, Circassian, Greek, Kurdish, Ladino, Turkish, DomariTime Zones UTC+02:00 (EET) ( Turkey
Turkey
and Cyprus)Largest citiesDamascus Amman Aleppo Baghdad Beirut Gaza Jerusalem Tel AvivThe Levant
Levant
(/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria
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Carracks
A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe. Developed from the single-masted cog, the carrack was first used for European trade from the Mediterranean to the Baltic and quickly found use with the newly found wealth and status of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In its most advanced forms, it was used by the Portuguese for trade along the African coast and finally with Asia and America from the 15th century before evolving into the galleon of the 16th and 17th centuries. In its most developed form, the carrack was a carvel-built ocean-going ship: large enough to be stable in heavy seas, and for a large cargo and the provisions needed for very long voyages. The later carracks were square-rigged on the foremast and mainmast and lateen-rigged on the mizzenmast. They had a high rounded stern with large aftcastle, forecastle and bowsprit at the stem
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Sicilia
Sicily
Sicily
(/ˈsɪsɪli/ SISS-i-lee; Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja], Sicilian: Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous region of Italy, in Southern Italy
Italy
along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe,[4] and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high
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Sardinia
Sardinia
Sardinia
(/sɑːrˈdɪniə/ sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa], Sardinian: Sardìgna/Sardìnnia [sarˈdiɲɲa]/[sarˈdinja], Sassarese: Sardhigna, Gallurese: Saldigna, Catalan: Sardenya, Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(after Sicily
Sicily
and before Cyprus) and an autonomous region of Italy. It is located in the Western Mediterranean, to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. The region's official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia),[3] and its capital and largest city is Cagliari. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city
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Vizir
A vizier (/vɪˈzɪər/, rarely /ˈvɪziər/;[1] Arabic: وزير‎ wazīr; Persian: وازیر‬‎ vazīr; Turkish: vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; Bengali: উজির ujira'; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر‬ vazeer, sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir), is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.[2] The Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary) who was at first merely a helper, but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian ki
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Lombardy
Lombardy
Lombardy
(/ˈlɒmbərdi/ LOM-bər-dee; Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard) [lumbarˈdiːa], (Eastern Lombard) [lombarˈdeːa]) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi)
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Naples
Naples
Naples
(/ˈneɪpəlz/; Italian: Napoli [ˈnaːpoli] ( listen), Neapolitan: Napule [ˈnɑːpələ] or [ˈnɑːpulə]; Latin: Neapolis; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania
Campania
and the third-largest municipality in Italy
Italy
after Rome
Rome
and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples
Metropolitan City of Naples
had a population of 3,115,320
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal p
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Spanish: Carlos; German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Dutch: Karel; French: Charles, [a] 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia
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Corsica
Corsica
Corsica
(/ˈkɔːrsɪkə/; French: Corse [kɔʁs]; Corsica
Corsica
in Corsican and Italian, pronounced [ˈkorsiga] and [ˈkɔrsika] respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia
Sardinia
to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica
Corsica
is also designated as a territorial collectivity (collectivité territoriale) by law
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Piedmont
Piedmont
Piedmont
(/ˈpiːdmɒnt/ PEED-mont; Italian: Piemonte, pronounced [pjeˈmonte]; Piedmontese, Occitan and Arpitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.[3] It borders the Liguria
Liguria
region to the south, the Lombardy
Lombardy
and Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
regions to the east and the Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
region to the northwest; it also borders France
France
to the west and Switzerland
Switzerland
to the northeast. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres (9,808 sq mi) and a population of 4,396,293 as of 31 July 2016
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Consular Court
Consular courts were law courts established by foreign powers in countries where they had extraterritorial rights. They were presided over by consular officers. Extraterritoriality[edit] Western powers when establishing diplomatic relations with countries they considered to have underdeveloped legal systems would demand extraterritorial rights. Treaty provisions provided that the laws of the local country did not apply to citizens of the treaty powers and that local courts did not have jurisdiction over them. Consular courts were established to handle civil and criminal cases against citizens and subjects of the subjects of the country.[1] The British had the widest system of consular courts run by the Foreign Office
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Jizya
Jizya
Jizya
or jizyah (Arabic: جزية‎ ǧizya IPA: [dʒizja]; Ottoman Turkish: جزيه‎ cizye) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied[1] by Islamic states on certain non-Muslim subjects—dhimmis—permanently residing in Muslim lands under Islamic law.[2][3][4] Muslim jurists required adult, free, sane males among the dhimma community to pay the jizya,[5] while exempting women, children, elders, handicapped, the ill, the insane, monks, hermits, slaves,[6][7][8][9][10] and musta'mins—non-Muslim foreigners who only temporarily reside in Muslim lands.[6][11]
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